House Made Of Sandwich Panels: Calculation, Installation, Nuances

Table of contents:

House Made Of Sandwich Panels: Calculation, Installation, Nuances
House Made Of Sandwich Panels: Calculation, Installation, Nuances

Video: House Made Of Sandwich Panels: Calculation, Installation, Nuances

Video: House Made Of Sandwich Panels: Calculation, Installation, Nuances
Video: Assembly Manual for Balex Metal sandwich panels in horizontal layout 2023, April
  • Selection of the type of sandwich panels
  • Calculation of the required quantity
  • Components for sandwich panels

    • Shaped elements
    • Seals and heaters
    • Special fasteners
  • Basic rules for installation and maintenance of panels
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

Sandwich panels are a building material designed primarily for the rapid construction of buildings for various purposes. However, contrary to popular belief, the field of application of sandwich panels is not limited to the construction of walls, floors or roofs. Unique properties make it possible to use them for insulation and sound insulation of existing buildings, exterior decoration and even as a means of fire prevention. In fact, sandwich panels are a three-layer system with cladding made of metal, plastic, oriented particle boards - OSB or other structurally strong sheet materials, with internal filling with an energy-efficient heat insulator - mineral wool board, polyurethane foam or expanded polystyrene. Thus, the competent use of sandwich panels makes it possible to comprehensively solve a number of tasks,arising at any stage of construction. How to choose the right one, determine the quantity and how to avoid mistakes during installation, you will learn from this article.

Selection of the type of sandwich panels

The following types of panels are used in industrial and domestic construction:

1. Wall sandwich panels for commercial or industrial buildings. Facing - profiled metal or plastic coated with polyester. The filler is a mineral board, polyurethane foam or expanded polystyrene. The total thickness is 50-200 mm. They are mounted on a metal, concrete or wooden frame. They are joined together using various types of lock joints. Price - about 1000 rubles / m 2 for a panel 100 mm thick.

Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

2. Wall sandwich panels for the construction of residential buildings. OSB facing, polystyrene foam filler. They are 60-200 mm thick. As a rule, a wooden beam is used as a frame for installation. Price - 900 rubles / m 2 for a panel 100 mm thick.

Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

3. Roof sandwich panels. The bottom layer is laminated profiled metal. Upper - metal roofing sheeting. The filler is a mineral board or polyurethane foam. Thickness 40-200 mm. Special locks on the side edges of the panels prevent moisture from entering, and the high profile of the outer sheet provides the necessary punching strength. The price is about 1200 rubles / m 2 for a panel 100 mm thick.

Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

It should be noted that the division into the first two types is rather arbitrary. Nothing prohibits, except, of course, your own prejudices, the use of industrial panels for domestic purposes. All of them meet the relevant sanitary, hygienic and environmental standards. In addition, in some cases, the use of industrial panels, due to their design features, can significantly reduce the cost of purchasing the required building material. Indeed, the outer walls made of panels with metal cladding are strong, resistant to external influences and, most importantly, do not require further finishing. At the same time, the interiors can be finished in any desired way and material.

Roofing sandwich panels solve a number of problems arising in the manufacture of roofs - high structural strength allows you to get rid of complex rafter systems, the outer cladding in combination with special locks completely eliminates leaks, and an effective thermal insulator layer provides heat in the under-roof space.

So, equipping the walls and roof from sandwich panels of the corresponding purpose, you can significantly reduce construction costs due to the complex solution of construction tasks.

Calculation of the required quantity

If you order a finished building from a construction company, then questions about calculating the required amount of material and purchasing it will not bother you - the builders themselves, according to the approved project, will calculate all the necessary elements and cut out panels on industrial equipment in accordance with the required shapes and sizes. But what if you have to deal with the construction of a building yourself?

To answer this question, you need to consider three things:

  1. Standard sizes of finished sandwich panels. Knowing the standard dimensions of the slabs, most of the building characteristics listed in clause 2 are selected in such a way that a minimum amount of waste remains.
  2. All geometrical dimensions of the building - the length and width of the house, the height of the floors, the number, dimensions, position and shape of windows and doors, as well as the shape of the gables, if you plan to make a warm attic space. Naturally, it makes no sense to start construction without a finished project. All the listed data can be taken only from it.
  3. Naturally, it is impossible to completely do without waste. In addition to rectangular elements, which are panels, construction will require details of other shapes, especially on the gable parts of the building. In addition, it will not be possible to completely size the house so that only whole sandwich slabs are used. Therefore, there is a need for cutting. All elements obtained from solid pieces of panels by cutting form the so-called cutting plan. It also needs to be drawn up.

How are finished sandwich panels cut? Industrial ones with metal cladding are cut with scissors, a fine-toothed low-speed circular saw and other tools that do not damage the outer protective layer on the metal and do not deform the panel itself. That is why the use of an angle grinder is not allowed, since during cutting the polymer coating of the metal simply burns out due to the high temperature. Roof panels are cut in the same way. Plates with OSB facing are cut using any tools that can provide the required cut: jigsaw, circular or chainsaw or hand saw. Let's concretize this information.

Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

Typical dimensions of metallized sandwich panels are 1000 mm wide, 1200 mm long, 800–18000 mm long. For panels with OSB, the dimensions are 1120 mm wide and from 2440 mm to 3000 length, in fact, these are the maximum possible sizes of OSB sheets. Panels with OSB are mounted both vertically and horizontally, it is advisable to install industrial panels only horizontally, that is, with the horizontal direction of the locks, otherwise there is a risk of moisture getting inside.

Thus, if you build a house from industrial sandwich panels, then only the width of the sheets will be critical size - the height of the house will be a multiple of it. The lengths of the panels can be any, respectively, and the length of the walls along the facades of such houses can also be arbitrary. There is no point in cutting the panels along, since their locks are unidirectional - with a groove down, and it will hardly be possible to use trimming in the future. For the same reason, all indirect cuts, for example, obtained by cutting out trapezoidal or triangular elements, will also be a waste of construction.

When building houses from panels with OSB facing, the length and width of the slabs matters. For the sake of economy, it is better to tie the height of the floors to the height of the panels, and make the total width of the house a multiple of the width of one sandwich plate. Since such sandwiches do not have special locks around the perimeter, there is a real opportunity to use trims in further construction, although this will present its own requirements to the building frame.

Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

As for the roof, when designing, it is necessary to take into account that the dimensions of the panels are similar to the dimensions of the wall panels of the same manufacturer, and the required roof slope must be at least 5 ° when using slabs along the entire length of the roof and at least 7 ° if they need to be joined.

After all the necessary calculations, the required number of panels is purchased, taking into account the cutting pattern.

Components for sandwich panels

So, we calculated the required amount, made a cutting map and sawed the purchased panels according to the corresponding drawings. You can start assembling the building. However, in order for the house to be strong and durable, it is necessary not to forget about the additional elements and materials used in the construction of sandwich panels.

Shaped elements

Metal profile products that form ebb, cornices, cover strips and other facade components.

Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

For some reason, in self-construction, these auxiliary details are often given insufficient attention. As a result, there is a violation of construction technologies, and this is not only an unprepossessing appearance of the facade, but also leaking and blowing seams, slopes, corners and other elements of the house. The absence, for example, of a cornice along the basement leads to moisture ingress on its upper plane, which in the case of OPS panels will lead to rotting of the basement beam of the frame, and for plates with a metal cladding and a metal frame to water seepage into the panels. Prices for some fittings: 200 rubles. for the docking bar, 250 rubles. for a basement cornice, 300-500 rubles. outside corner.

So, based on the technological requirements, the mandatory shaped elements during construction will be:

  1. Cornice element of the junction of the starting panel and the base.
  2. Corner element. Closes the corner joint of the panels.
  3. Cover strip. When the panels are transversely joined, the joint must be closed with special strips that do not allow water to enter the seam.
  4. Slopes. Cover the edges of the panels along the perimeter of windows and doors.

Shaped elements are made both according to standard shapes and sizes, and according to individual drawings.

Seals and heaters

This includes sealing and sealing tapes, sealants and polyurethane foams. When joining several panels, special attention should be paid to such things as sealing and thermal insulation of the seams so that no cold bridges and moisture penetration into the panels are formed. The cost of sealants is about 150-200 rubles. for 250 ml, tapes cost about 1.5–2 rubles / m.

Mandatory places for the use of heaters and seals and the materials used for this:

  • for wall panels with OSB facing, all seams are thoroughly foamed;
  • for metallized sandwich panels in the seams, a special sealing tape will be appropriate;
  • in the places where the sheets adhere to the metal or concrete frame, in order to cut off the cold, a heat-insulating strip is glued;
  • to protect the roof from leaks at the joints of the panels, sealants and sealing tapes are used.

Special fasteners

The sandwich panels are fixed to a supporting structure made of steel, wood or concrete. If it is planned to fix the panel to steel or wood structures, then self-tapping screws with a washer made of elastic sealing material are used. In the case of concrete frames, use the appropriate fastener - self-tapping dowel. When choosing the length of the screws, consider the thickness of the panels. The price of self-tapping screws for fastening sandwich panels is from 1 RUB / piece. depending on the length.

Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

When attaching panels to the frame, the following recommendations should be followed:

  • the distance from the edge of the panel to the self-tapping screw must be at least 50 mm;
  • all connecting elements must be at an angle of 90 °;
  • it is necessary to remove the protective packaging film from the panels at the seams and in the places where the screws are screwed;
  • The longer the panel is used, the longer the panel is used, the more screws per linear meter are wrapped: two - one at the top, the second at the bottom - for panels up to two meters, three - a third in the middle - for panels up to three meters, four for five-meter sheets and six for six-meter sheets. There is no need to increase the number of screws in the future using large panels.

Basic rules for installation and maintenance of panels

In order for a building built of sandwich panels to serve for a long time, you must adhere to the following installation requirements:

  • installation of sandwich panels with expanded polystyrene filler can be carried out in almost any weather conditions;
  • it is impossible to install panels with mineral wool insulation during the rain, as there is a risk of the insulation layer getting wet;
  • roofing panels are mounted at the temperature recommended by the manufacturer of the sealing materials used during operation;
  • no kind of additional construction equipment should be attached to the panels. If necessary, only supporting structures can be used;
  • do not allow any blows to the panels, and especially to the locks throughout the work;
  • not to allow violation of the protective coating of metal sheets of panels during installation and operation;
  • the protective packaging film is only removed after the building has been fully assembled.
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances
Sandwich panel house. Calculation, installation, nuances

In addition, it is very important to properly maintain a sandwich panel building:

  • at least once a year, it is necessary to carry out an external examination of the coverings of the panels and fasteners;
  • any dirt is washed off with soapy water and a soft brush. Do not use solvents or abrasive detergents;
  • damage to the coating is restored with a repair paint. At the same time, if the scratch is only on the coating, then one layer of paint is enough, if steel is affected, then two layers using a primer.

Popular by topic