Smart Vineyard: The Basics Of The Basics

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Smart Vineyard: The Basics Of The Basics
Smart Vineyard: The Basics Of The Basics

Video: Smart Vineyard: The Basics Of The Basics

Video: Smart Vineyard: The Basics Of The Basics
Video: Wine Basics from My Wine Smarts 2023, April
  • What is a smart vineyard
  • Varietal reality
  • Technical (wine) varieties
  • What are rootstocks and what are they for
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

Along with olive, date palm, barley and wheat, grapes are among the most ancient cultures, which man began to cultivate at the dawn of his origin - primitive people engaged in gathering have already planted it near their homes, as told by ancient artifacts with drawings and references to this plant … Scientists believe that the agricultural technology of grape cultivation originates from Asia (the territory of modern Afghanistan and Iran), where, during excavations, archaeologists found the seeds of this culture among the remains of ancient dishes. This indicates that about 4-6 thousand years ago, grapes were already grown in Central Asia and Mesopotamia.

In ancient Egypt, at the same time, they already learned how to make raisins and make various wines - this is evidenced by the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs for wine and bunches, as well as raisins and vines. Historians managed to find drawings of special devices for squeezing juice and coins, which depict grapes. The ancient culture of growing this plant was also present in Palestine, as can be found in the Bible (Old Testament).

Archaeological excavations confirm the fact that viticulture was well developed on the territory of modern Armenia, where scientists managed to find ancient wine-making equipment and the remains of irrigation canals. In Italy and Sicily, grapes began to be grown 100 centuries ago - there are finds dating back to the Minoan era (more than three thousand years). And during the wars of conquest of the Roman Empire, viticulture reached its full bloom - it was at this time that special tools, technologies were invented, and various varieties were bred. Wine and raisins were sold to other countries. Then, after the invasion of the barbarians, viticulture fell into complete decline and revived in Italy only in the 14th century AD.

Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

Seeds of cultural grapes dating back to the third millennium BC were found in the territory of Azerbaijan. Scientists immediately discovered stone containers for fermentation and storage of wine, as well as stones for pressing berries. Around the same time, grapes began to be grown in Greece, China and on the territory of modern Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

The ancient grape culture in Russia (more than 2 thousand years ago) was discovered on the territory of Southern Dagestan, and in other regions of the Caucasus and the Lower Volga region, the first vineyards appeared only in the 17-18 centuries.

World production of fresh grapes, raisins, wine and other products of its processing is growing rapidly from year to year. However, this crop is grown today not only on an industrial scale. It is impossible to imagine a single summer cottage without a vine; this plant is very popular among gardeners. Let's figure out how to properly organize a vineyard so that it can exist with minimal human intervention.

What is a smart vineyard

In our dachas, in most cases, there are two extremes. The first and most common - the vine grows by itself, like a tree, it is not pruned for years. The grapes drive ten-meter lashes, go under the roof and braid trees, so they often find themselves in the shade. In such conditions, only some brushes can normally mature; a small number of shoots remain until spring.

The other extreme is that the gardener has firmly grasped the following: the more you cut, the better. And he cuts off almost everything that has grown over the summer, rejuvenating an already young bush, thereby saving himself from most of the harvest next year.

Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

Of course, some people have mastered the classic guidelines and avoid the aforementioned extremes. They have good yields, but caring for the vineyard takes too much time and effort. After all, the years can turn out to be either too wet or too dry, and the varieties are often unstable to various diseases. With a lack of care and attention, the vine gets sick and stops bearing fruit.

It is clear that the vineyard should not have any of the above disadvantages. In order to get high yields with a minimum investment of time and effort, it is necessary to initially organize it correctly, that is, arrange everything so that the bushes can do without human intervention for a long time.

The main rule of a successful winegrower is: "A smart vineyard should be easy to form, easy to work with, and most importantly, it should be well understood by you." Let's find out the basic principles on which the organization of a smart vineyard is based:

  1. A good vineyard is based on the right varieties. If the majority of fruit trees, even in spite of certain disadvantages, still suit us, then the grape harvest is too valuable and small to neglect careful attention to the choice of a suitable variety. If you do not have the opportunity to devote a lot of time to the bushes, you should choose disease-resistant frost-resistant varieties, and there are no more than ten to fifteen of them. If you want to "devote your life to grapes", then welcome to visit the famous Kuban winegrowers - Karasev and Radchevsky, from whom you can choose grapes for every taste. We will talk in more detail about the choice of a variety a little later.
  2. It is important to note that the market is not a good place to buy varietal seedlings. It is mainly dealers who trade here, who do not understand the situation and do not know what they are selling. Cuttings and seedlings should only be purchased from people who grow grapes themselves. They will not only sell you high-quality planting material, but will also be happy to give you some useful tips for caring for this or that variety.
  3. The grapes must be planted so that they are provided with nutrition, moisture and light to the maximum and do not require much attention in the future. In fact, this is the most time consuming process when planting a vineyard. However, once you correctly arrange a planting hole or trench and organize a "smart" trellis, and for 8-10 years you will not have any problems with the power of the bushes and their formation. We will talk about how to do this in the following articles.
  4. Constant digging of land under grapes negatively affects soil fertility. To maintain order and cleanliness in the vineyard, the soil near the bushes is better "gassed" or mulched, and turn the free space into narrow vegetable beds. We will discuss later which plants are best planted near grapes.
  5. A properly formed bush is a guarantee of a high yield and good health of the vine. At the same time, many gardeners consider pruning to be the most difficult and incomprehensible moment. In the future, we will give such simple and detailed information on this matter that you will forget about this problem forever.
  6. To obtain the desired result, even the most resistant varieties must be sprayed and fed 2-3 times per season. The following articles will reveal in detail the "smart" feeding technology and provide all the necessary information on grape medicine.
  7. Grapes are a rather thermophilic plant, therefore, they require shelter for the winter. Having studied the physiology of the bush, you can choose the most optimal option for protecting the vine from frost. To date, experienced winegrowers have bred cold-resistant varieties, and various methods have been developed to increase the frost resistance of grapes, which we will talk about in the near future.

Varietal reality

So, you have decided to plant several grape bushes on your garden plot. What is needed in order for the vine to please you with a decent harvest from year to year? First of all, it is necessary to choose the right varieties most suitable for the climatic conditions of your area. When choosing a variety, you should definitely figure out why, in fact, it is needed. If you are going to grow grapes for sale, this is one thing, and if for the needs of your own family, then this is completely different.

People who grow grapes professionally distinguish varieties for the soul, that is, for home consumption, and varieties for sale. Market grapes are notable for their beauty and large clusters and berries. These varieties ripen at the right time, but are not resistant to most dangerous diseases. Caring for such bushes includes frequent processing with pesticides, so an experienced winegrower will never eat such berries himself. He will leave for his family, albeit not so attractive in appearance, not so fruitful, but fragrant and environmentally friendly bunches. Grape varieties for home consumption are quite frost-resistant and resistant to diseases, they can be grown without using chemistry, but using biological remedies, which we will talk about in more detail next time.

Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

The most popular varieties for sale are:

  • early: Kodryanka, Gift to Ukraine, Arcadia, Delight, Kesha-1, Augustine;
  • middle: Nadezhda AOZS, Gift to Zaporozhye, Demetra;
  • late: Moldova, Cinderella, Zarevo, Flamingo and Zagrava.

Experienced winegrowers distinguish as varieties "for the soul":

  • early: Chisinau Dawns, Victoria, Summer Muscat, Church Bells, Raisin, Glenora Sidlis;
  • medium: Liana, Pearls of Moldova, Kuban, Pineapple;
  • late: Novocherkassky, Biruintsa, Lydia.

We have already touched upon the issue that grape seedlings and cuttings should not be bought at the bazaar in any case, since here, under the guise of nurseries and state farms, it is mainly dealers who trade. They have everything to attract a customer - labels, plates, photographs and even ready-made brushes for display. However, no one can guarantee that you will buy exactly what you saw here. And in this case, it will be a pity not so much money as wasted time, since the seedlings will give the first harvest no earlier than in 2-3 years. Of course, something will grow, but sometimes not what you wanted.

Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

It should be noted that when choosing grapes, one should not pay attention to large berries, the size of a quail's egg. Such brushes are grown specifically for advertising with the use of harmful fertilizers and chemicals.

Where can you really buy a variety? The answer to this question is one - among people who grow grapes and are engaged in its cultivation themselves. To do this, you need to visit their vineyards, where you can not only purchase real goods, but also get the necessary advice on the selection and care of grapes of one or another variety. Moreover, it is highly desirable to find winegrowers practicing in your area, since certain grape varieties require a certain temperature and humidity, a certain soil composition, and so on.

Grapes differ in their frost resistance. There are special varieties for gazebos that do not require frost protection (Muromets, Kutuzovsky, Kishmish Zaporozhsky, Dekabrsky). And there is a vine that needs to be well covered for the winter, such grapes do not tolerate low temperatures and can completely die in severe frosts. When preparing grapes for winter, the main rule should be observed: any uncovered grapes cannot be pruned in the fall - because of this, it loses frost resistance.

Today, there is a huge number of grape varieties of different characteristics, therefore, within the framework of one article, it is not possible to give all the necessary information on each of them. There are many reference books with descriptions of all existing varieties, and to choose the most suitable one for your conditions, it is best to seek help from experienced professionals.

Technical (wine) varieties

What winegrower doesn't like good homemade wine! However, not every grape is suitable for making it. Most people associate winemaking with varieties such as Lydia or Isabella, but experts say that their use is far from the best option for these purposes. The yield of juice from Lydia and Isabella is small and there is a lot of mucus in it. In addition, the European Association of Winemakers has banned these varieties due to the presence in their composition of substances harmful to the human body that negatively affect the functioning of the liver. Another serious drawback of these varieties is that Lydia and Isabella are accumulators of leafy phylloxera, which harms vines of another variety.

Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

For making homemade wine, it is best to use grapes of the following varieties: White Suruchensky, Crystal, Pridonsky Muscat, Platonovsky and Rosinka. Many growers, as the best, distinguish the Druzhba variety, but it has a low frost resistance and requires good shelters for the winter.

What are rootstocks and what are they for

In summer cottages and household plots, you can often find "wild grapes", powerful bushes of which drive ten-meter lashes and braid everything around. The berries of such a vine are small black in color and have a rather nasty taste, it happens that they are not at all. If you have such a "miracle" growing on your site, know that this is one of the vigorous rootstocks of grapes on which you can graft any variety. If there are berries on wild grapes, then this is a 5BB or Kober 5BB rootstock, if there are no berries, then 4B or CO4. Wild grapes have a strong root system, resistant to frost and phylloxera, such rootstocks tolerate an excess of lime in the ground.

Today, there is a constant debate between professional winegrowers about whether it is necessary to plant cultivars, or whether it is better to use self-rooted plantings. This issue must be approached carefully.

Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

Bushes on rootstocks are always more powerful and capable of producing twice as much, however, a vigorous rootstock on nutritious fertile soils can make the bush fatten, delay the ripening and accumulation of sugar. Therefore, it is most advisable to plant grapes on an alkaline soil poor in nutrients.

If your vineyard is located in the centers of strong phylloxera infestation, then you should not grow on your own roots the varieties most susceptible to the negative influence of this pest. It is best to consult local winegrowers on this matter.

It is best to plant medium-sized varieties, since a vigorous grafted bush can take up a lot of space. If you plan to grow grapes on a trellis, then it is better to use self-rooted seedlings, and if you want to plant a vine near the gazebo, then grafted bushes are more suitable.

Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics
Smart vineyard: the basics of the basics

As you can see, any person who has a desire and a little free time can do viticulture. To do this, it is necessary to initially organize the planting correctly, so that in the future the bushes can do without your attention for a long time, and at the same time you get a stable decent harvest. In the following articles, we will deal with the issues of rooting seedlings and their correct planting, give comprehensive information on the formation of a bush, share the experience of feeding without the use of chemistry and consider the main points of grape medicine. To be continued…

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