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Video: How To Make A Well From Stone
2023 Author: Douglas Hoggarth | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-11-26 20:16
- Well made of stone
- Brick well
- Concrete well
The materials for the construction of wells are natural stone, brick, concrete rings.
Well made of stone
Natural stone (sandstone or limestone) is cut off. The inner surface should be flat or concave. Unlike brick wells, the stone is not the same size. Therefore, the entire masonry is accompanied by cutting off the stone in order to chop off the ledge and give the desired shape. The stones themselves must be clean, without cracks, weighing 30-40 kg. Cutting can be done with a conventional hammer or with heavier tools. First, the stones are laid out in heaps according to size, then they are laid without mortar, they are checked if they are well selected, then they are disassembled and laid again, already on the solution. It must be remembered that when building a well from a stone, more mortar is required than when building from a brick, since the stones are uneven and the gaps between them are larger. If the stones are different in size, then they are laid in layers.
A layer of small ones is put on large ones, and then small ones are covered with large ones. The masonry should be even not only from the inside, but also from the outside, since when the well is lowered, which will inevitably happen, the protruding stone can catch on the ground and the masonry will be torn. Riding water will flow into the resulting gap into the well. In the worst case, the well will be destroyed. The thickness of the walls of the masonry can be from 30 to 50 cm, depending on the depth of the well.
The most difficult moment in the construction of stone wells is the strengthening of the masonry with reinforcement and a bunch of seams. The bottom of the pit must be leveled. Three frames are made in advance. The lower one should be made of a more durable material, since all the weight of the stone will fall on it. It can be metal, concrete, or solid wood. It should be 10-15 cm thick, it depends on the strength of the material. Metal, for example, can be thinner and wood thicker. On the outer diameter, it should be 5-6 cm wider than the masonry, on the inside, it should coincide with the masonry. If the frames are wooden, then they are made of several layers of boards, fastened with long nails bent from the back side. The second and third frames can be thinner and smaller in diameter. All frames are fastened together with reinforcement (metal rods). The rods must be very rigidly fixed in the frames.
For this, threaded rods are used at the ends, and they are fastened to the frames with nuts and washers. First, the lower and middle frames are assembled on the ground, then the structure is lowered into the pit. The entire structure in the mine must be secured with boards or logs. A layer of mortar is laid on the lower frame and the masonry is raised to the middle frame. Before reaching the middle frame of 8-10 cm, reinforcement and the upper frame are strengthened. Then the stone is laid up to the upper frame. In order for the masonry to be perfectly even, a template can be made, which can be either in the form of a ring or in the form of a half ring. But its diameter should be 1 cm less than the masonry itself, for free movement inside it. If the flow of water into the well is lateral, then it is necessary to leave several holes for inserting filters into them. Immediately it is necessary to fix metal staples in the masonry in orderso that you can go down to the well to clean it.
During laying, wire should be laid every 4-5 rows. The walls of stone wells are plastered from the inside with a solution of 1: 1, 1: 2. It is recommended to plaster in two steps. First, apply the first layer with a more liquid solution by spraying, which will penetrate very well into all cracks, folds, pores. When the first layer begins to "set", a second, thicker layer is applied. This layer is carefully leveled. The smoother the surface, the easier it is to clean. Wooden rings should not be plastered. The bottom of the well is thoroughly cleaned and covered with coarse river sand or gravel. The upper part of the well is also round. As with wooden wells, ventilation of the well must be provided. And in the future, monitor the condition of the well and clean it.
Only red bricks are used and they are very well fired. This brick is durable and waterproof. Before starting masonry, the brick is soaked. The first two rows are bonded. Since the masonry has a round shape, a gap is obtained along the outer edge between the bricks.
It is recommended to fill it not only with mortar, but also with pieces of brick. Strengthening the masonry with frames and fittings is carried out in the same way as in the construction of stone wells. Only if you have to select a suitable stone for the reinforcing bars in stone wells, then you have to make recesses in the bricks.
For the construction of concrete wells, you can use both ready-made rings and self-made concrete, which is an artificial stone made from a mixture of cement, water and aggregate. The aggregate can be sand, gravel, crushed stone. The aggregate grains should be of different sizes, as the smaller grains fill the voids between the larger ones. This increases the strength of concrete and avoids overconsumption of cement. The filler must be clean, free of impurities. Concrete with reinforcement laid in it is reinforced concrete, which is an order of magnitude stronger.
Strength depends directly on the brand of cement. In addition, the strength of concrete depends on the consistency (amount of water) and compaction. It should be borne in mind that when making concrete, the mass decreases in size. Therefore, it is necessary to take more dry materials in quantity than it is supposed to prepare concrete. First, sand and cement are mixed, then crushed stone or gravel is added and only after that water is added.
The wall thickness of a concrete well depends on the depth. In a shallow well it is 10-15 cm. The mold for the manufacture of concrete rings is made of two cylinders. At home, it is easier to make them from planed boards. First, two wooden rings of the same diameter are made, which are installed and fixed vertically one above the other. The rings along the inner and outer diameters are sheathed with boards, but so that the nails can be easily pulled out. Then the boards are held together with metal strips or wire. As well as outside and inside, they are fastened with a strong frame.
The nails are pulled out and the rings are taken out. In the process of pouring concrete, reinforcement is inserted. At least two rods are bent and leave protruding "ears" above the surface, for which it will be possible to lower the ring into the shaft. Concrete wells are much easier to build than stone ones. The rings are fastened with staples, for which holes are left in the rings in advance. The staples can be fastened with nuts and washers, or welded. A tarred hemp or rope is placed between the rings. The formed seams are plastered. To prevent the plaster from spilling out, depressions can be made in the still wet concrete. The head must protect the well well from precipitation and dust. A well-compacted layer of oily clay and a blind area of boards are placed around the head.
Around the well, it is necessary to make a fence from animals, as well as for the safety of children.
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