How To Build A Well With Your Own Hands

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How To Build A Well With Your Own Hands
How To Build A Well With Your Own Hands

Video: How To Build A Well With Your Own Hands

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Video: How to Drill a Well by Hand 2023, February
  • We solve problems with drinking water - we build a well with our own hands
  • Finding water
  • The place of the future well has been determined - further actions
  • Diy well - mine or tubular
  • Well construction safety
  • We build a mine well in the country
  • Bottom filter - construction
  • Well construction - well head
  • Create a well shaft
  • How to install a wooden frame of a well
  • Concrete well construction
  • DIY concrete well - three ways to create

    • Monolithic casting
    • Concrete ring well
    • Concrete plate well
  • Construction of wells from brick and stone
  • Well owner rules
  • How to eliminate gas accumulation in a well shaft
  • Well cleaning
  • We disinfect the well
  • How to prevent stagnation of water in a well and its icing in winter
Well in a country house
Well in a country house

We solve problems with drinking water - we build a well with our own hands

For many thousands of years, our distant ancestors were engaged in digging wells, repairing and conserving water in them - after all, they did not have another source of clean fresh water. The city wells were under special supervision - they were strategic objects, extremely important for the townspeople in a drought and during an enemy siege.

It would seem that in our 21st century, the need for wells has completely disappeared, a central water supply system has come to replace it - a powerful system stretching for hundreds of thousands of kilometers, designed to fully provide all residents of the country with drinking water. But, as practice shows, natural water purification in wells is much more effective than the system of water treatment plants, and the water in a well tastes better than tap water. In addition, a well is a constantly available “personal” supply of water for the whole year, while overloads and accidents occur at waterworks and pipelines.

To have a well in the country is the dream of every summer resident. Only now, not everyone decides to build a well on their own, and attracting professionals to this business is troublesome and costly.

In reality, creating a well is not as difficult as it seems at first glance. Although, as in any business, you cannot do without skill and a special tool.

Finding water

Before digging a well in the most attractive place for this, you need to make sure that there is groundwater and determine the depth of the aquifer, its qualitative and quantitative characteristics, as well as the nature of the rocks separating it from the surface. Layers of sandstone, clay, etc. are considered to be aquifers, through which water can be obtained by the shaft of the well. Under the aquifer lies a rock that does not allow water to pass through and does not give it away. The main source of groundwater is atmospheric precipitation, less often water filtered by soil from local open sources (rivers and lakes).

There are three main types of groundwater:

  • the upper water, which lies not deep from the surface. You cannot use it in water supply - it is poorly purified. Therefore, during the construction of wells, this layer must be isolated from seepage into the well shaft. This type of groundwater is notable for its small volumes and directly depends on atmospheric precipitation - if their amount is small during the season, then the top water completely disappears (especially during drought and in winter);
  • groundwater, represent the nearest (from the surface) aquifer, the reserves of which are unchanged. Like the first type of groundwater, groundwater is not under excessive pressure, its level in the well shaft is set equal to the level in the aquifer. In natural nature, groundwater is represented by springs in places where these aquifers come to the surface of the earth, they are characterized by cool water, crystal clear and with a pleasant taste;
  • artesian waters differ from the first two in their pressure - they lie at a considerable depth, where they are squeezed by two waterproof layers. When drilling a well to this water reservoir, water is poured out under its own pressure, often in a fountain.

The easiest way is to choose a place for a future well near an existing one. Otherwise, it would be most appropriate to involve specialists-hydrologists who have data on the occurrence of aquifers in a given area. It is unproductive to carry out work on the construction of a well, focusing only on indirect signs to which popular rumor ascribes their properties. The only correct, but, unfortunately, the most time-consuming and costly method of detecting an aquifer is drilling exploratory wells.

Finding water
Finding water

When determining the location of the future well, it is important to adhere to several rules: the nearest source of pollution (latrines, cesspools, bathhouses, livestock keeping places, etc.) must be at least 25 m from the well shaft; attempts to dig a well on the banks of rivers, the slopes of ravines and gullies are useless, since the groundwater will be drained by them.

The place of the future well has been determined - further actions

No, it's too early to start excavation work - first of all, you will need permits for the construction of a well from local government agencies, a sanitary and epidemiological station and a hydrogeological party.

Then you need to decide what type of well will be built - tubular or mine. Which drive for water supply will be used - manual or pump.

Diy well - mine or tubular

The main difference between these types of wells lies in the way they are created: a mine well is dug out with a shovel, a tubular one is broken through. There are several reasons for choosing one of these two types of wells. If the aquifer lies at a considerable depth, then it will take a long time to dig a mine well.

Building a mine well
Building a mine well

However, in addition to the depth of the groundwater, the number of solid fragments (stones) between the aquifer and the surface matters - it will be extremely difficult to break through solid rock with a homemade tool, it is better to dig a mine well.

Construction of a tubular well on our own, in my opinion, is practically impossible, since it requires special equipment, and it is unlikely that it will be possible to adapt something handy for manual drilling. Therefore, in this article, the tubular well will not be considered.

Well construction safety

Most of all, you should be afraid of the fall of loads from a height on the heads of workers in the well shaft, to protect against this, observe the following conditions:

  • wearing protective helmets is mandatory during the entire time of work at the mine - no exceptions;
  • before lowering the load into the mine, test the strength of the ropes by suspending a load of sufficient weight on them;
  • check the attachments of the excavation buckets, do not neglect this - falling of the bucket loaded with earth will result in serious injury to the workers in the mine.

We build a mine well in the country

When building wells, compliance with SanPiN 2.1.544-96 is required (requirements for the quality of water from non-centralized sources).

The main elements of the shaft well: head (part of the well that rises above ground level), shaft (well shaft below the head), water intake part (part of the shaft that contains water). The intake part can be created by three types of structure: incomplete (or imperfect, the shaft support in this structure does not touch the underlying water-resistant layer, water enters the well through the bottom opening and walls); complete (or perfect, with the support of the lining on the waterproof layer, with the flow of water through the side walls of the mine); complete with a sump (or perfect with a sump - a special reservoir created in a waterproof rock to create a larger water supply). Also, to create a water supply, an expansion of the underwater part of the well shaft, resembling a tent in shape, can be performed.

Well construction
Well construction

Correct location of the shaft well

1 - mine well; 2 - cesspool; 3- surface unprotected aquifer; 4 - waterproof clay layer; 5 - protected aquifer.

To select a particular design of the intake part, it is necessary to calculate the daily water demand as accurately as possible, otherwise stagnation and decay of water is inevitable. The best choice in the case of a small (individual) daily water intake will be the design of an imperfect well, with water entering it through a bottom filter - additional filters on the sides of the mine will not significantly affect the water supply, but it is quite difficult to make them. There is no need to deepen the shaft of such a well into the aquifer by more than 1/3, since the well does not depend on the lower level of the aquifer.

Bottom filter - construction

To create it, three layers of gravel or crushed stone are used (the thickness of the lower layer is 100 mm, the next two are 150 mm each), each higher layer should be formed by a larger fraction (approximately 6-8 times). If the aquifer is too liquefied, and the water is supplied abundantly enough, a floor of boards, equipped with holes and slots, is supplied under the lower shaft fastening, and filtering layers are already laid on it.

Well construction - well head

Typically, the height of this manhole element is between 600 and 800 mm above the ground. Upon completion of the construction of the well in the next 2-3 years, some shrinkage of the soil around the head is possible - wait for them and build a blind area. It is performed as follows: a clay lock is needed along the perimeter of the head (width 500 mm, depth 1000-1500 mm), on top of it there is a solid reinforced concrete blind area.

Create a well shaft
Create a well shaft

Create a well shaft

The material for the walls of the wells is wood, natural stone, concrete or brick. If a decision is made to make a well with your own hands from wood, then oak will be the best material: in the above-water part of the well shaft it will last up to 25 years, in the underwater one - more than a century. In addition to oak, elm, alder and larch wood is quite suitable - for the underwater part and the surface part, pine is suitable only for the surface part. Other types of wood are less durable and can also impart unpleasant taste and odor to well water.

How to install a wooden frame of a well
How to install a wooden frame of a well

Shaft well device:

1 - gate; 2 - spike; 3 - drainage pipe; 4 - log house; 5 - a layer of gravel; 6 - clay castle; 7 - planking headboard

When choosing wood for a well, be as picky as possible: only a healthy, straight, not dry and not worm-eaten forest will do.

As a rule, a wooden well has a square shape with a side of 700-1400 mm (most often 1000 mm). The main priority here will be the maximum convenience of working in the mine. The frame of the well can be made of plates (logs cut in half D = 220 mm) or solid logs (D = 150-180 mm). The assembly of the blockhouse is required first on the surface, marking the crowns for subsequent installation in the mine. At the corners, the logs are attached to a paw (no residue) with a root spike (or without it). The crowns are connected with each other with pins (L = 100 mm), set apart vertically. To reduce the likelihood of separating the lower and upper rims, they should be tied together with steel brackets, fastened with bars in the corners, and fastening boards should be put along the central part of each side.

How to install a wooden frame of a well

There are three ways: gradual installation from the bottom of the well-shaft, lowering fastening (the frame is built up from above, as it sinks into the mine) and build-up from below.

The first method is suitable for shallow wells (up to 6000 mm), provided that the walls of the mine are stable (no collapses and swelling) and little intensive water inflow. The sequence of work is as follows: a well is being dug to the full depth, then a base frame is placed at the bottom of the mine, a log house is assembled on it. In some cases, logs of the required length (beds) cut in half are placed at the bottom of the mine, to which the floor covering is sewn and, then, the frame is mounted.

If the depth of the well is more than 6000 mm, the lowering fixture will be more convenient. Sequence of work: digging wells for 3000-6000 mm is carried out, then a well frame is placed on the base, bringing it above ground level by 3 crowns; after which the shaft is deepened by 250 mm (excavation is carried out in the middle of the walls of the log house, without touching the corners). The blockhouse is fixed on all sides with wedge pads, after which the soil is removed in the corners, then the wedges are knocked out, the blockhouse is evenly planted at the bottom of the mine.

In cases where wells are being dug on loose and loose soils, it happens that the frame in the mine shaft gets stuck - you need to besiege it, striking the upper crown. If this method turns out to be ineffective, try to lay a log (board) on the upper crown, followed by placing a load of significant weight on this flooring.

Monolithic casting
Monolithic casting

In case of failure (such cases are rare, but there are), the frame must be increased from below. Bottom build-up is usually done for particularly deep wells. With this installation of the well frame, a crown with “fingers” is made in it along the entire length, with a step of 4-5 crowns (the two lower logs have longer ends - by 400-500 mm). For the "fingers" in the mine, they tear off horizontal notches ("pechuras" or "pawns"), put them there, followed by pressing up (with jacks) and fastening to wedges. Embedded recesses will reliably strengthen the frame in the shaft of the mine.

For a more convenient descent of the well log into the well shaft, it will be necessary to expand its base - to give it the shape of a tent, equipping the lower part with a shoe with a knife. If the density of the soil allows and the future well has a relatively shallow depth, then it is convenient to place the frame built up from above in the mine on ropes, hanging it at a distance of 500-1000 mm from the bottom level - the frame will cease to be an obstacle when sampling soil. For this: a log frame is created above the shaft, to which ropes are attached with several turns; the middle of the ropes is wound under each of the corners of the frame. Frictional force and slight tension of the ropes will keep the frame in a suspended position, slight loosening of the rope will lower the frame.

As a rule, the aquifers themselves are floaters and require a special approach in the installation of a well frame. When installing the well in the country, in the conditions of liquefied and fine sand, stop the installation and place an additional tent under the main frame to collect water, retreating 350-400 mm from the lower walls of the well frame. The catchment tent is mounted from the bottom up, slowly and carefully, it must be dug with moss and sheathed with slats. As the mine deepens, the sand collected by the additional tent is laid between the walls, and the water is pumped out.

In the case of especially liquid bottom floaters, a four-sided bulkhead is required, assembled from planks and placed 350 mm deep between the spacer frames and the rails. Excavate without exposing the ends of the bulkhead, then re-deepen the bulkhead.

If it is necessary to pass the mine through the top water with poor-quality water, it will also require the installation of a bulkhead, the boards of which are driven in from the outside of the frame (a clay castle is laid between the partition and the frame).

Concrete well construction

The advantages of concrete wells are the best strength characteristics and long-term service life, and in terms of sanitary and hygienic characteristics, they are a cut above the rest.

Concrete ring well
Concrete ring well

It is important - for elements of a well structure made of concrete, only high-quality cement of grade 400 is required; clean (washed) quartz sand; crushed stone (gravel), the fraction of which does not exceed the minimum distance between the ribs of the reinforcement and a quarter of the minimum wall thickness. For reinforced concrete rings, the following concrete mix will be required: 1: 2: 3 or 1: 2.5: 4 (positions - cement, sand, crushed stone (gravel)), while the required mass of water is 0.5-0.7 kg mass of cement.

It is best to reinforce concrete with a special reinforcing steel having a corrugated surface (reinforcement of a periodic profile). Make sure that the metal of the reinforcement is free of rust. The ends of the reinforcement must be bent or the hooks must be welded to them (under the action of tensile loads, the reinforcement and concrete will work together).

DIY concrete well - three ways to create

Monolithic casting

Most often, such construction is carried out in a finished shaft - external and internal formworks are installed, between which concrete is poured. At a great depth of the shaft, the lowering method is used. For this, the shaft is concreted to a shallow depth, while the formwork and fastenings are brought to the required height above the ground. Further, a deepening of the mine bottom is carried out with a gradual settling of the concrete shaft of the well, the lower part of which is preliminarily equipped with a special shoe with a knife.

There is another way - the lower part of the concrete trunk (about 1000 mm high) is given a light cone shape with a sharpened edge expanding at the bottom, edged with steel. Excavation continues until the shaft is immersed in the shaft by 2000 mm, after which the formwork is installed on the upper part and a new section of the well is cast. 10 days after the new casting, the excavation is resumed - and so on until the trunk is immersed in the aquifer.

Concrete ring well

This type of concrete well is faster and easier to build because prefabricated rings are usually used - only the installation of a shoe with a knife on the lower section is required.

When connecting concrete rings end-to-end, it is necessary to prevent their displacement - for this they use staples in the form of the letter Z with straight inner corners, made of steel (thickness 4-5 mm, width 50-80 mm). For better joining and tightness of the connection of the rings, they are connected with a seam joint (in a quarter) or in a socket.

Brick well construction
Brick well construction

A possible problem during the construction of a well by the sinking method can be the collapse of the soil in the upper part of the shaft - the upper section will be clamped by the soil, while the lower continues to move down. A rupture in the inter-ring joint is possible. To eliminate this situation, it is required to connect concrete rings with steel plates (strip 40-60 mm wide, 5-10 mm thick), placing them evenly on four sides around the circumference. The plates are attached to the concrete rings with steel bar brackets (D = 16 mm) or steel bolts passed through specially made holes.

At the end joints of the water intake part, the rings should be sealed with a rope made of tarred hemp (D = 20 mm): it is laid out in a special groove in the upper end of the reinforced concrete ring. The seams located above the water intake part of the well are closed with concrete mortar (cement: sand, as 1: 3). In well work, it is strictly forbidden to use any mastics, etc., based on chemical products.

Excavation of soil under the deposited shaft is performed as follows: if the soil is soft, it is removed from the middle to the edges; if it is firm - first in the area of ​​the knife, and then in the middle.

The intake section of a concrete well is, by and large, similar to a wooden well - therefore, it is convenient for water to flow through the bottom (an imperfect well is being performed). If the aquifer is too loose, it is necessary to bring a platform from a thick board under the lower ring and arrange a gravel filter on it (similar to the gravel filter in a wooden well, described above).

When constructing a concrete well in a weak aquifer, it is possible to install side holes (side, horizontal, ascending or V-shaped) in the water intake part of the trunk. The V-shaped holes on the outside are closed with a filled sand or fine gravel filter, on the inside, coarse gravel is placed.

Concrete plate well

The construction of wells from concrete plates is similar to the construction of wooden wells. The mass of such plates is small - 30-35 kg, the cross-section is usually 250x70 mm. The plates are mounted on the mortar, at the corners they are connected by welding or a "paw" joint.

Construction of wells from brick and stone

Such wells are generally round in shape. For brick wells, exclusively red brick is used, with good firing and density. The natural material for the well is sandstone, dense limestone or shale. If the bottle does not have flat sides, it must be trimmed before receiving them. Before starting work on the formation of the wellbore, carefully select the rubble stone, sort it by diameter (the layers of the wellbore should not be mixed - large and small rubble stone is laid out in separate layers).

How to eliminate gas accumulation in a well shaft
How to eliminate gas accumulation in a well shaft

The masonry is carried out in such a way that the rows remain horizontal, the seams between the stone are minimal, and the stone itself does not protrude to either side (inward / outward). Careful dressing of the seams will be required, the stones must be laid with the narrow side inside the well so that the soil pressure does not push them out of the masonry. Bricklaying is also done. From the outside of the masonry, the seams are filled with brick fighting (crushed stone) and coated with mortar.

The wellbore is laid from the bottom of the mine, if it is shallow. In a deep shaft, the shaft is placed by the lowering method (on a support shoe). The thickness of the walls of a brick well must be at least 250 mm, of rubble stone - at least 350 mm. From the inside, the trunk is covered with plaster, the underwater part is covered with a solution of cement and sand in a ratio of 1: 2. To exclude possible breaks along the height of the masonry, anchor rods are installed. Otherwise, the design of the intake section for such wells does not differ from those already described above.

Well owner rules

The purpose of the well is to constantly provide its owners with clean drinking water. And in order for the water in it to meet these conditions, it is important to follow several rules:

  • if the owners of the well keep animals (any!), it is required to take measures so that pets cannot get closer to the well than 6 meters. To do this, you need to fence the well;
  • if the wellbore is left open, dust, tree foliage, various insects and even animals will inevitably get into it. It is necessary to close the well with at least a cover (metal, wood or plastic). The optimal solution to this issue would be a well house;
  • attention, this is especially important - strictly forbid children to play near the well and use it without the presence of adults, keep the well lid locked!
  • twice a year it is necessary to conduct a thorough inspection of the well, assess the condition of the walls of the wellbore for wear and contamination. To do this, use a sufficiently powerful light bulb on a long, well-insulated cord (!). A strong flashlight will also work;
  • any foreign object must be removed from the well immediately after its discovery, using a pole or rope with a hook of sufficient length;
  • if any animal is found in the well water, it is necessary to completely drain the water and remove the animal. After that, it is imperative (!) To thoroughly disinfect the well, and then refill the well;
  • there is always an element of risk when descending into a well. You can descend into the wellbore using a ladder or a rope, but you should never descend alone and without belay - the presence of belaying people on the surface is mandatory, at least 2 people;
  • before going down into the well shaft, be sure to check the level of gas content. It would be nice to get a gas analyzer, but you can get by in the old way - to conduct an analysis based on the open flame of a candle. The burning of the candle lowered into the barrel is normal (the same as on the surface) - there is no threat. If the candle flame takes on a different shape - it flares up with a torch or, conversely, dies out - then, in the first case, the gas concentration is weak (but it is present!), In the second, a lethal gas concentration is possible. You cannot imagine how frequent are the deaths of people when descending into polluted wells!

How to eliminate gas accumulation in a well shaft

Well cleaning
Well cleaning

There are several ways:

  • lowering / raising an empty container (large enough without immersing it in water). It needs to be covered on top with some kind of dense fabric - matting or tarpaulin will do. The container closed with a cloth is repeatedly lowered / raised within 15-20 minutes, after each rise, the cloth is folded back to release the gas outside;
  • waving, i.e. frequent descent / retrieval of a bundle of grass or straw attached to a rope (the diameter of the bundle should approximately correspond to the inner diameter of the well). After this operation, a lighted bundle of straw should be lowered into the well shaft and with its help the remaining gas should be burned out;
  • by pumping internal air from the well with an exhaust fan or a powerful vacuum cleaner.
  • And a more successful way (and one of the oldest) is to extract gas by means of an ordinary metal stove - "potbelly stove". It is installed near the head of the well, a metal pipe is introduced into the blower, lowered to the very bottom of the well (up to the water mirror) and they begin to heat the stove. During the combustion process, all the gas will be drawn out of the well - this method can be used even in the presence of people in the well shaft.

Important! If during the work inside the well you feel some kind of discomfort, even if it is insignificant - your eyes begin to water, a sudden attack of coughing, dizziness, yawning, slight difficulty in breathing - do not pull, immediately leave the well shaft and go to the surface using a ladder, a rope with imposed knots (evacuation means must not be removed during the entire time of work in the well!). Immediately report your discomfort to people who belay you - if you cannot leave the well yourself, have them retrieve you with a safety rope. During well work, never remove the safety rope or untie (unfasten) the safety rope!

Well owners who hire hired workers to work in well shafts are obliged to monitor compliance with these rules and demand their observance - we are talking about human lives!

Well cleaning

To do this, you need to go down inside the wellbore, after making sure that there is no gas. Armed with a broom, sweep away grass, dirt, mucus and moss from the walls - sweep all dirt down into the water (you still can't do without pumping water). All debris removed from the walls must be removed from the bottom of the well using a fine mesh. The broom is made from a shaft, freshly cut, cleaned of leaves and washed birch branches. If brushing is not effective enough, use a steel brush or any metal plate suitable for scrubbing.

After removing debris from the walls of the well, rinse them twice with water. If a filter made of sand or gravel (crushed stone) is laid at the bottom of the well, it must be completely selected and removed, then thoroughly rinsed under running water and put back (or replaced with a new one).

After cleaning the well, it should be disinfected.

We disinfect the well

This requires determining how much water is in the well. The calculation is simple: you need to multiply the area of ​​the water table by the water level from the bottom of the well. Calculating the volume in tons, we take the weight of a liter of water equal to one kilogram.

Remove (pump out) the water completely before starting disinfection work. After that, wipe or spray (pour over) the walls with bleach dissolved in water, using a brush wrapped around a stick with a rag or mop. The solution is prepared as follows - 20 g of bleach powder is diluted in one liter of water. If you manage to get pure chlorine for disinfection, you will need 5 times less - chlorine in bleach contains only 20%.

Having processed the walls, we are waiting for the well to be filled with water again. While the wait lasts, you need to prepare a disinfection solution based on the calculated volume of well water: we collect cold water in a clean container (namely cold water - chlorine quickly evaporates in warm water, but we need it), add 200 mg of bleach for each liter of water, tightly close the container with a lid (it prevents chlorine from volatilizing) and slowly shake the mixture. Let the solution settle for a couple of hours, then pour the mixture into another clean container, leaving a cloudy sediment in the first container.

We disinfect the well
We disinfect the well

It is necessary to pour the resulting solution into the well, stir it with a wooden pole of sufficient length or buckets, which are filled with well water, rise up and their contents are poured back into the well with force (and so on several times) - the method of mixing with buckets is especially effective. After completing mixing, let the water in the well settle for 12 hours, covering the head with a thick cloth or a lid to prevent chlorine from evaporating. The next day, the disinfection work is repeated in the same sequence - the disinfection solution must be prepared again. You cannot use water from the well during disinfection!

Upon completion of the secondary disinfection, the water from the well is completely pumped out, repeating this operation several times until the water stops smelling like chlorine. Between pumping out of water, the walls of the well should be flushed with clean water from another source. Upon completion of the work, raw well water cannot be drunk for a week - be sure to boil it.

Conduct a chemical analysis of the water from your well by contacting a specialized company - the cost of a complete chemical analysis will be about 2,500 rubles. A common misconception: if the water is transparent, has no color and no suspensions, it means that it can be drunk without a threat to health. Many colorless chemicals can be dissolved in water, the content of which can only be determined by chemical analysis in a specialized laboratory.

For laboratory analysis, you will need about 3 liters of water from a well, it should be taken into a clean dish, slowly, without bubbling, under the very neck of the container (an airlock can affect the chemical composition and distort it). The water prepared for analysis should be placed in a dark place or the container in which it is contained should be wrapped in an opaque plastic bag. If the delivery time of the container with water to the laboratory is delayed for some reason, place it in the refrigerator.

The chemical composition of water must comply with the rules of SanPiN 4630-88 and the conditions of GOST 2874-82 "Drinking water".

How to prevent stagnation of water in a well and its icing in winter

The rare use of well water and the lack of flow leads to stagnation (mustiness) of water - in this case, it must be pumped out. To exclude such a situation, it is necessary to equip the well shaft with a ventilation pipe (D = 80-200 mm), it should not reach the water level in the well by 150-200 mm and rise above the head (above the well house) to a height of about one meter. The outlet of the ventilation pipe should be taken away with a fine mesh (from insects) and a cone-shaped roof.

To prevent icing of the walls of the wellbore, in the cold season, close the lid and head with an environmentally friendly insulation (no chemicals!). This measure will keep the temperature inside the well at the level of + 6 … + 10 o C.

Keep an eye on the quality of the well water: taste, smell, color, turbidity, etc., most of all in the autumn and spring seasons.

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