Paving Slabs: Production, Selection And Installation Methods

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Paving Slabs: Production, Selection And Installation Methods
Paving Slabs: Production, Selection And Installation Methods
Video: Paving Slabs: Production, Selection And Installation Methods
Video: How to Install Concrete Flag/Block Paving Flexibly | Commercial Paving | Marshalls 2023, February
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  • Advantages of concrete paving stone coatings
  • How paving slabs are made
  • Equipment and conditions for the production of concrete tiles
  • Tile production process
  • Laying of paving slabs
  • How to choose quality paving slabs
  • Tiling technology
  • The second stage of improvement - the formation of the underlying layer
  • The actual laying of the tiles
  • Cutting paving slabs
  • Paving slabs - price
Production of paving slabs
Production of paving slabs

The Greeks and Romans were the first to pave the roads with stones; many centuries have passed since then. For more than 100 years, the roads in our cities have been completely covered with asphalt pavement - certainly functional, but so gray and boring. The streets of modern cities have lost their individuality, have become the same - a dignity that can only be appreciated by the inhabitants of the land of the rising sun, who worship monotony. Therefore, in the last decade, the pavement has returned to the streets again, it has become more practical and cheaper than natural stone - this is paving slabs.

Now some readers of the article are smiling incredulously - they are sure that paving slabs cannot be compared with asphalt or concrete pavements, because they have seen with their own eyes sidewalks paved with such tiles and platforms with completely broken tiles brisked with sharp gravel. And I completely agree with this group of readers, because until a certain time I myself was skeptical about paving slabs, observing the broken, sagging or swollen pavement, in places completely overgrown with grass and plants. Why it happens? Are paving slabs not suitable as a good road surface?

The thing is that the quite natural desire of city municipalities, utilities, as well as legal entities and individuals to save money on landscaping by purchasing the cheapest paving slabs and hiring to lay it, to put it mildly, "amateurs" fully corresponds to the old adage "stingy pays twice. " But in order to understand how high-quality paving slabs are produced, how to determine its quality when choosing and which tile laying technology will be correct, you need to read this article.

Advantages of concrete paving stone coatings

Don't be confused, this is one of the names of paving slabs. This type of coverage allows you to lay out tracks of any length and platforms of any size. Compared to traditional asphalt paving, paving slabs have several advantages (provided that they are well laid):

  • the formation of puddles is completely excluded, since water leaves through the inter-tile slots;
  • in the warm season, paving slabs heats up less than asphalt; does not soften, volatile compounds are completely absent;
  • such a coating does not interfere with soil air and water exchange, which has a positive effect on green spaces;
  • recurring needs for the laying or repair of underground utilities does not mean a complete replacement of the road surface - the tiles can be carefully removed, and at the end of the work they can be laid back.

How paving slabs are made

There are two production technologies: vibrocompression and vibrocasting, in the first case, a rigid mixture is used containing a small amount of water in relation to cement, in the second, plasticizers are added to the mixture.

Production of paving slabs
Production of paving slabs

Both tile production technologies are practically the same in terms of the quality of their products, the result is a low-porosity concrete tile. And yet it is necessary to pay tribute to the vibrocasting production technology - plasticizers introduced into the composition of the concrete mixture provide the best quality of the concrete stone.

Paving slabs are manufactured in accordance with GOST 17608-91, they must be frost-resistant - withstand at least 200 freeze / thaw cycles, durable - over 30 MPa, abrasion-resistant - maximum 0.7 g / cm 2, moisture-proof - maximum 5%.

In its production, Portland cement of the M500DO brand is used, sand with a fraction of no more than 2 mm, crushed stone with a fraction of 5 to 10 mm. To increase the strength properties, a plasticizer is introduced into the concrete composition. For the color of the paving slabs, pigments are used that are resistant to sunlight and atmospheric influences, the best pigments are the products of the German company Bayer and the Czech company Usov and Prohese.

Equipment and conditions for the production of concrete tiles

Such a production is not particularly large-scale: it requires a closed area from 100 to 300 m 2, a three-phase power supply, two forming tables, a concrete mixer, a stripping table and several sets of plastic forms.

Tile production process

Forms for the formation of tiles are lubricated with special lubricants, prepared concrete mixture is placed in them. The filled molds are then placed on a vibrating table to compact it. After vibration molding, plastic (rubber, polyurethane) molds with tiles are stacked and covered with a polyethylene film. Exposure in forms takes a day at a temperature of at least 15 o C.

Removing the finished tile form produced at the vibrating table Stripping pre-forms are heated in a bath of hot water at 45-50 t of C - if the heating is not fulfilled, the life of the tile is reduced by one-third and results in a large percentage of marriage.

The final stage of the production of paving slabs: the paving slabs taken out of the molds are placed on Euro pallets, tied with packaging tape and covered with stretch film (or shrink wrap). After 7 days in summer or 28 days in winter (from the moment the concrete solution was prepared), the paving slabs are ready for use.

Laying of paving slabs

Before purchasing the required number of tiles and materials for laying it, you need to decide on the laying pattern, and only then choose tiles of a suitable shape and colors.

Laying of paving slabs
Laying of paving slabs

When choosing the form of laying, one point must be taken into account: if the tile is smaller or larger than the elements of the selected pattern, then it will have to be cut, which means high material costs, a large percentage of waste and more time to complete the work.

How to choose quality paving slabs

The question is difficult - it is difficult to determine the quality of tiles without special devices and testing in a laboratory. In order not to miscalculate, you need to know some of the features of the appearance of the tiles:

  1. There are two ways to give the paving slabs a mirror surface - by adding special additives to the concrete composition or by introducing more water. It is immediately clear that adding water will cost the manufacturer much less than the introduction of expensive Western-made additives, but water significantly reduces the strength of the tile. You can determine the reason for specularity in this way - by lightly hitting two tiles together, we listen to the sound. If the sound is voiced - the tile is made with the introduction of special additives, if it is deaf - more water is added.
  2. The color of concrete paving stones should be rich and bright. If the tile has an excessively bright color, this indicates an increased presence of dye pigments and does not give the tile strength.
  3. The price of paving slabs cannot be low if it is produced on modern equipment and high-quality, tested materials are used in its production.
  4. The tile must be made only in accordance with the conditions of GOST 17608-91, as evidenced by the manufacturer's stamp (quality certificate). Choosing a cheaper paving slabs made according to technical specifications does not guarantee its quality and long service life.

Before buying, it is necessary to accurately calculate the required amount of paving slabs, since it will be difficult to buy it in addition - the color of the tiles of the same type, but from different parties, does not match in tone (and in some cases, in size).

Calculation of the number of paving slabs
Calculation of the number of paving slabs

Any batch of paving slabs contains a certain percentage of scrap - international standards allow for up to 5% of scrap in each batch.

Buy a larger tile squaring than required - by 7-10%, it is quite possible that it will have to be cut and some will go to waste.

The percentage of additional tiles depends on the chosen installation method: circular or diagonal installation will require more concrete tiles than parallel ones. It will be correct to leave 1-1.5 m 2 of tiles in reserve to replace damaged ones during operation.

Tiling technology

There are three ways of laying paving slabs, differing in the strength of the underlying layer, the choice of which depends on the purpose of the areas covered by the tiles. The initial stage of tiling work is the same for all methods.

At the first (initial) stage of work, the following tools will be required: a bayonet and shovel, a rake, a garden hose with a spray (respectively, a water supply source), a rammer (manual or electric), a level, a metal ruler, a geotextile filter.

It is necessary to remove the sod layer over the entire area covered by the tiles - to a depth of 100-150 mm. The bottom of the resulting pit should be carefully leveled and tamped, giving it a slope for precipitation flow - 10 mm per 1 m2 of area. If the soil is too hard and difficult to excavate, you need to fill its surface with water from a garden hose and wait a day. On the sides, open ditches for the side curbs, tamp the bottom, then fill with a 50 mm layer of sand, place the curbs in them with cement mortar (cement: sand: water as 1: 3: 0.5). Cover the pit with geotextile fabric over its entire area.

Reference: geotextile fabric is a nonwoven fabric made of polypropylene fibers. This material is resistant to chemical compounds of various aggressiveness, does not lend itself to decay, mold and fungi, prevents the germination of plant root systems and mixing of the underlying layers of the base (reinforcement function), and provides drainage. Prevents rut ​​formation.

The second stage of improvement - the formation of the underlying layer

Method 1 is used when overlapping areas intended exclusively for pedestrians with tiles: fill the pit (over the laid geotextile) with sand to the edges (at least 30-40 mm), carefully level it with a rake. The sand needs to be poured with some excess - it will settle during tamping. If the bottom of the excavation is not even enough, deformations of the position of the paving slabs are inevitable - in this case, adding 50 kg of cement for every 500 kg of sand will help to solve the problem.

Subbase formation
Subbase formation

Methods 2 and subsequent are intended to create coverings for traffic / parking of vehicles:

  • on top of the geotextile flooring, a 100-200 mm layer of crushed stone (fraction 5-20 mm) is poured, poured over with water and rammed. Then a layer of sand is poured - 50 mm;
  • on top of the laid out layer of sand (100 mm), compacted, moistened and leveled, a mesh of reinforcement with a cell of 50x50 mm is laid (without a bundle). A layer of sand (30-40 mm) is laid on top of the reinforcing mesh;
  • on the tamped and leveled layer of crushed stone (100-200 mm, fractions 5-20 mm), a ready-made cement mortar (sand: cement as 3: 1) is applied with a layer of 20-30 mm, on which concrete paving stone is laid.

The actual laying of the tiles

The surface of the sand cushion is wetted with water, leveled with a metal ruler - with smooth, sliding movements. Laying the tiles starts from the building: the tiles are hammered into place with a special rubber hammer. Laying of the first and subsequent rows of tiles is carried out in the "kneeling" position, you cannot lean on the sand with your feet or hands - use a board for support, moving it along the laid out rows of paving slabs. The tiles are not stacked closely (!) - maintain a gap of 3-5 mm. Carefully check the position of the tiles using a level set on a metal ruler. If there are excessive protrusions of the tile, drown it with a rubber hammer, when lowering it, add a little sand under it.

Upon completion of the installation of the paving slabs, it is necessary to generously fill the entire surface formed by it with sand (fraction 0.2 mm), and then sweep the paving stones with a broom, driving the sand into the cracks between the tiles. In this case, caution is necessary - you can accidentally move the laid out tile, it will not move only after the cracks are completely filled with sand.

At the end, you need to pour water over the entire space with freshly laid tiles, removing excess sand, then give it a day for exposure, blocking the passage along it.

Cutting paving slabs

In the process of forming the pattern and laying the tiles, cutting is inevitable. To cut the concrete tile, use an electric tool - an angle grinder, better known as a grinder. It needs to be equipped with diamond-coated blades - they will last longer and provide better depth of cut. Remember to wear a face shield and gloves when cutting, and to reduce dust emissions, the tiles should be doused with water.

Paving slabs - price

The cost of paving slabs depends on its color and complexity of execution. A concrete-colored tile - gray, with straight, parallel sides costs an average of 300 rubles. per m 2, execution of complex (ornate drawing, polyhedral) - average 370 rubles. per m 2.

The presence of a coloring pigment in the composition of concrete increases the cost to 400-430 rubles. per m 2, and in some cases - up to 1000 rubles. per m 2.

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