Table of contents:
- Types of energy carriers for heating systems
- Heating system device
- Choosing an individual heating system for an apartment
- Additional equipment, radiators and piping
Video: Boilers For Autonomous Heating Systems
2023 Author: Douglas Hoggarth | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:23
Types of energy carriers for heating systems
- Solid fuel heating systems
- Oil heating systems
- Gas heating systems
- Electric heating
- Other heating systems
- Heating system device
- Choosing an individual heating system for an apartment
- Additional equipment, radiators and piping
The history of space heating is the history of individual heating systems. Centralized heating systems appeared relatively recently (in the 17th and 18th centuries). Before that, mankind heated their homes with individual heating (if you can call it that). District heating was extremely inefficient. The first systems appeared in France, England, Germany. The central steam heating system was patented in 1793, although it was invented by the Englishman Cook in 1745. The water heating system was proposed by the French physicist Bonnemen in 1777. But only in the middle of the 19th century, central heating systems began to appear in the form in which we are used to seeing them in our days. Boiler houses provided heat to certain areas. The most rapid growth in central heating systems was noted in America in the early 20th century. This was due to the rapid development of urban infrastructure. In Europe, the introduction of central heating systems in Germany began en masse. The first boiler house was built in 1900 in Dresden. In the Soviet Union, central heating systems began to develop en masse after 1924. However, it was too early to say goodbye to individual heating systems. This is due to the fact that the central heating system was effective only when there were a large number of consumers. It turned out to be not profitable to use such systems in the conditions of individual housing development. As before, autonomous heating systems prevailed in the private sector. Furthermore,after the collapse of the USSR, the entire cumbersome and energy-intensive system of central heating and hot water supply began to literally fall apart before our eyes. The rise in energy prices and the chronic insolvency of the population continue to destroy this system. Construction organizations have recently been erecting apartment buildings that receive heat from autonomous heating and hot water supply systems, which is many times more profitable and efficient than the centralized method.
Types of energy carriers for heating systems
Speaking about autonomous heating of any room, first of all, it is worth deciding on the fuel (energy carrier) that your heating system will consume. Despite the fact that the market offers many types of heating systems, all these systems consume one or more types of fuel (combined autonomous heating systems). The most common energy sources are:
- solid fuels (coal, peat, pellets, etc.);
- liquid fuel (diesel fuel, fuel oil, etc.);
- natural gas (including biogas);
- Electric Energy;
- other energy sources.
Most autonomous heating systems are designed based on the use of the energy sources listed above. Before making a choice in favor of a particular system, you must first make a choice of the energy carrier that will be used. First of all, you need to choose not the energy carrier that is cheapest, but the one that can actually be supplied (brought) to your facility. In addition, there are a number of additional conditions that must be met before you start working on the heating system itself. For example, no organization will allow you to install a heating system in your apartment that runs on liquid fuel. Or another option - about 20 km to the nearest gas pipeline to which you can connect the heating system of your country house. Not hard to guess,that the cost of gasification of such a facility will be enormous. So you have to choose exactly the energy carrier that is available directly in the place where the object is located. Let's look at heating systems that run on different types of fuel.
Solid fuel heating systems
This type of fuel has been used for heating homes since ancient times. There are a lot of options for using this type of fuel for heating. The simplest one is burning solid fuel in a stove (fireplace). For a small room (a house in a summer cottage, small outbuildings), this heating method is perhaps the most economically justified. But heating a large house in such an outdated "traditional" way is currently not profitable even in those areas where solid fuel (wood, coal, peat, etc.) is in abundance. More time will be spent on the preparation and storage of fuel, which takes up a fairly large volume. Modern solid fuel heating systems are a boiler that burns solid fuel and at the same time heats the coolant (most often water), through which the building is heated. The efficiency of such systems is many times higher than that of standard furnaces used for heating. Very often, such systems are equipped with a special pump for forced circulation of the coolant. Such heating systems have a negative side. Solid fuel boilers require periodic presence of the operator to load the material to be burned, to remove the combustion products. Leaving such a heating system to work in autonomous mode is possible only for a limited period of time, which is due to the rate of combustion of the energy carrier and the capacity of the fuel bunker, as well as the presence of an automatic energy supply system. Such heating systems have a negative side. Solid fuel boilers require periodic presence of an operator to load the material to be burned, to remove the combustion products. Leaving such a heating system to work in autonomous mode is possible only for a limited period of time, which is due to the rate of combustion of the energy carrier and the capacity of the fuel bunker, as well as the presence of an automatic energy supply system. Such heating systems have a negative side. Solid fuel boilers require periodic presence of an operator to load the material to be burned, to remove the combustion products. Leaving such a heating system to work in autonomous mode is possible only for a limited period of time, which is due to the rate of combustion of the energy carrier and the capacity of the fuel bunker, as well as the presence of an automatic energy supply system.as well as the presence of an automatic energy supply system.as well as the presence of an automatic energy supply system.
Modern solid fuel boilers that burn pellets and are equipped with automatic fuel supply can operate autonomously for several days. In addition, due to the use of a pyrolysis fuel combustion system in such boilers, the amount of fuel consumed is significantly reduced, its maximum combustion is achieved, and the efficiency of the heating system as a whole increases. The principle of operation of pyrolysis (gas generating) boilers is as follows. Under the influence of high temperature, gas begins to evolve from the solid fuel, which is burned through a special nozzle together with the main fuel itself. Thanks to this method of fuel combustion, the boiler efficiency is up to 87%, which is a fairly high indicator. However, unlike conventional solid fuel boilers,This pyrolysis boiler requires electricity to operate the automation system. Another way to reduce fuel consumption and increase the efficiency of such a system is to use heat accumulators, which are large-capacity storage tanks, the liquid from which is heated during the combustion of fuel, and then gives off heat during circulation through the heating system. Due to its large volume, this system ensures that the optimal temperature in the room is maintained even at a time when the fuel is not burning.and then gives off heat during circulation through the heating system. Due to its large volume, this system ensures that the optimal temperature in the room is maintained even at a time when the fuel is not burning.and then gives off heat during circulation through the heating system. Due to its large volume, this system ensures that the optimal temperature in the room is maintained even at a time when the fuel is not burning.
It is worth noting that heating systems, where solid fuel is used as an energy carrier, are more often used at large facilities, and not in households, since constantly monitoring the availability of fuel, loading solid fuel into the bunker, cleaning the combustion chamber is a rather laborious process. which takes some time. Very often, such systems can be found in woodworking enterprises, furniture factories, in butter shops (husk burning).
If we take into account the fact that the cost of heating premises with liquid fuel slightly exceeds the cost of heating with solid fuel, it becomes clear why such heating systems are preferred, especially in the household. I would like to say a few words about such a fairly new type of fuel, like pellets. The history of the appearance of this fuel is quite simple - the disposal of waste from the woodworking industry. Pellets are granules obtained by pressing shavings, sawdust. Woodworking waste is preliminarily dried, treatment with all sorts of chemicals is not performed. There are special regulations and standards that pellets meet. These are the main characteristics of pellets:
- Calorific value - 18 MJ / kg (5 kWh / kg)
- Diameter - 10 mm (typically 6 mm)
- Length - 5 x diameter
- Water content (moisture) - about 10%
- Bulk density - 1, 12 kg / dm 3
Oil heating systems
Heating systems using liquid fuel are also widespread, have excellent performance (some boilers have an efficiency of about 89%), are quite economical, and can work in an autonomous mode for a long time. Agree, to have a solid fuel boiler in the steppe region of the country means to deliberately doom yourself to the search for fuel. This is especially true for those regions where not only forests are absent, but also coal or peat is not mined. Delivery of solid fuel to your building will be quite expensive. It is for this reason that liquid fuel boilers are used in such regions. Often, such heating systems are installed in modern cottage settlements, where the main natural gas has not yet been installed and power lines do not allow connecting powerful heating equipment. In some cases, the presence of such heating boilers is due to the specifics of the activities of enterprises. For example, at large automobile enterprises or service stations, used oil and fuel oil are burned in such boilers. The benefit is obvious - as a result of combustion, heat energy is generated and there is no need to pay for the disposal of spent fuel and lubricants (fuel and lubricants). It is quite natural that such a heating system cannot be used in a modern apartment either. Not a single design organization will allow you to install fuel tanks in your apartment. The benefit is obvious - as a result of combustion, thermal energy is generated and there is no need to pay for the disposal of spent fuel and lubricants (fuel and lubricants). It is quite natural that such a heating system cannot be used in a modern apartment either. Not a single design organization will allow you to install fuel tanks in your apartment. The benefit is obvious - as a result of combustion, thermal energy is generated and there is no need to pay for the disposal of spent fuel and lubricants (fuel and lubricants). It is quite natural that such a heating system cannot be used in a modern apartment either. Not a single design organization will allow you to install fuel tanks in your apartment.
The most important advantage of a liquid fuel heating system over solid fuel systems is the ability to operate autonomously for a long time without human control. The only thing that limits the operation of such a system is the availability of an adequate supply of fuel and backup power supply. In addition, the quality of the fuel used and its shelf life affect the quality of the heating system. Most often, diesel fuel is used as an energy carrier. It is reasonably affordable and easy to store. It is worth remembering that diesel fuel quality must comply with GOST 305-82. The guaranteed shelf life of this type of fuel from the date of production is 5 years. Storage conditions for this fuel must comply with the requirements of GOST 1510-84. It is on the storage conditions of fuel that its quality and the quality of the entire heating system will depend.
During the combustion of petroleum products, particles of sulfur compounds can form, which are deposited on the surface of the fuel chambers. It is for this reason that the surfaces that have direct contact with the burner flame are made of cast iron, which leads to a significant increase in the weight of the boiler. As well as boilers for solid fuels, boilers for liquid fuels require seasonal maintenance (removal of combustion products).
Gas heating systems
Gas heating systems are the most common not only in an individual, but also in a collective farm (centralized heating). This is due to the fact that gas is currently the cheapest energy source.
There are two main directions for the development of gas heating:
- heating with liquefied gas, including biogas;
- use of main gas.
Heating with liquefied gas is a kind of alternative to solid and liquid fuels. The efficiency of such heating is very high, but the cost part may be several times higher than the cost of purchasing and installing a standard solid fuel heating system. The fact is that such heating systems require mandatory registration with the Rostechnadzor authorities. In addition, a number of works are to be performed related to the equipment of the storage facility for liquefied gas.
It is better to trust such works to those enterprises that are ready to provide you with a full range of turnkey works - from the development and approval of the project to the installation of equipment and putting it into operation. Practice has shown that such heat supply projects have a fairly short payback period in comparison with heating with solid or traditional liquid fuel. Biogas is an alternative, fairly new type of fuel that is obtained from the processing of organic waste. In agricultural areas, such installations successfully compete with main gas. Naturally, for a private house, the presence of such an installation is extremely unprofitable. But for a small farm, such a solution will not only significantly reduce heating costs,but also make it independent from fluctuations in energy prices. The biogas production plant will allow solving not only heating issues, but also energy supply to the facility, refueling vehicles with fuel. The biogas plant is quite simple in design and includes the following elements:
- device for the preparation of organic raw materials;
- device for obtaining and collecting biogas;
- devices for transportation, cleaning, storage of gas;
- consuming devices (heating boilers, power plants, installations for obtaining liquefied gas, etc.).
Boilers for operation on liquefied gas come in very different capacities - from several kW to powerful centralized heating systems. For example, the Italian company BERETTA produces a wide range of such boilers.
If biogas is acceptable for rural areas, then in urban conditions cheaper energy sources than natural gas simply do not exist. Heating systems running on natural gas can be used both as an autonomous heat supply for an apartment (office, house), and for heating entire areas. It all depends only on the power of the equipment.
A wide range of heating gas equipment is produced by BOSCH, JUNKERS, ROCCA, VEISSMANN and many others.
Electric heating is very often used either as an auxiliary heat source (underfloor heating, infrared heating), or used in conditions where it is not possible to use another source of energy. Despite the fact that electricity is a fairly cheap energy source, you will not be able to equip a house with heating without additional investments. The fact is that for the normal operation of the electric heating system, it will be necessary to design a non-standard line to the house (apartment, office) with a capacity of up to 10 kW, single-phase, but a 380 V line is needed. Such lines require separate approval. There are several options for organizing heating an object using electricity - this is either a traditional method of heating a coolant and supplying it through a pipeline to radiators, heating with individual heating devices (convectors),or a mixed version.
Heating with convectors is appropriate in an apartment or in a small building. If you need to organize heating of an object with an area of 200 or more sq. M. you will most likely have to install a hydraulic heating system with an electric boiler. The disadvantages of electric heating include a very high power, which makes it almost impossible to use a heating system powered by backup power sources. There are some peculiarities associated with the type of coolant. The fact is that traditional water that is pumped into the heating system has a very detrimental effect on the performance of the boiler heating elements. The use of special fluids (for example - antifreeze, antifreeze) to some extent removes this problem, but significantly affects the cost of the system itself,makes it extremely difficult to recharge the system with this type of coolant.
There are many ways to cut costs when using electric boilers. One of these methods is the use of a multi-tariff electricity meter and a heat storage device (heat accumulator). The principle of operation of such a system is quite simple. Heat accumulators (accumulators) are heated at night when the electricity tariff is at its lowest. Then, during the day, heating takes place using the accumulated heat energy, and the main heating system is turned on only when the batteries run out of their reserves.
Other heating systems
First of all, it is worth recalling the increasingly popular solar panels (collectors). Thanks to vacuum collectors, infrared energy is captured by special panels, which consist of a set of glass double-layer vacuum tubes and converted into heat, while heating the coolant. Solar collectors are also recommended for use in conjunction with heat accumulators.
An even more original way to heat rooms is to use the heat of the Earth. This became possible thanks to the use of special heat pumps. The idea of such heating is as follows. A heat pump can absorb the heat energy of any object (in this case, earth) and use it for heating. The earth's surface, or rather the soil, is a kind of heat accumulator, which accumulates solar energy during the warm period. At a certain depth, the soil temperature is constant throughout the year. It is this property that underlies such heating. Wells are being drilled to a certain depth, the installation of a system of pipelines through which the coolant will circulate. The service life of the heat pump is about 20 years. During this time, such a heating system fully covers all costs. Moreover, such a system is not subject to any influences of the economy, exchange rates, etc.
Heat pumps are capable of extracting heat not only from the ground, but also from water. As you know, the temperature of the world's oceans does not fall below 3-5 degrees Celsius. A similar system of pipes can be fixed at the bottom of any reservoir and use the heat of the water for your purposes. Humanity has always been original in solving its everyday problems. However, I have never met a weirder heating system. A Swedish hotel has a heating system that uses the heat of cow's milk. There is a farm next to the hotel, from which milk is piped to the hotel's heating system. More than 1,100 cows provide milk for such heating. Moreover, milk is thus cooled and perfectly preserved.
Heating system device
Heating systems, including autonomous heating systems, differ not only by the type of energy carrier, but also by the type of heat carrier, namely:
Hydraulic (liquid) heating systems are available with natural and forced circulation. Natural circulation is carried out due to the properties of the liquid to expand when heated. Forced circulation is carried out by a pump. There are also differences in the system for delivering coolant to heating radiators:
- one-pipe heating agent supply system;
- two-pipe heating agent supply system;
- combined system.
The name of these filing methods speaks for itself. In the first case, the coolant in transit through one pipe, which connects all radiators in series, passes through the entire system and returns to the boiler. The disadvantages of such a system include the fact that the first radiators will be very hot, while at the same time the temperature at the exit from the system will be quite low. There is also no way to individually adjust the temperature of the radiator. The second method uses the principle of individual supply of the coolant to the radiator from a common line. This is the most common, but also more expensive, method of supplying the coolant.
Any heating system is a complex of materials and equipment with which the room is heated. Typically a heating system consists of:
- a heating boiler, in some cases and a circulation pump;
- heating mains;
- heating devices (radiators);
- temperature control devices and system safety.
The efficiency and economy of the entire heating system will directly depend on the coordinated work of all its components. Completeness of fuel combustion, minimization of heat losses, correctly selected heating devices - all these factors in one way or another affect the operation of the heating system.
Choosing an individual heating system for an apartment
Knowing the features of the heating system, let's try to choose equipment for heating an apartment in a residential building. I would like to note right away that before starting such work, you need to obtain all the relevant permits, complete design work, and obtain permission to disconnect from centralized heating and hot water supply. This is a fairly lengthy process that will require not only a lot of time, but also money investments. For heating an apartment, it is best to purchase a double-circuit boiler with a sealed combustion chamber. Such a boiler will allow you not only to heat the room, but also provide you with hot water. In addition, combustion products will be released into the atmosphere directly through a pipe in the wall, bypassing the ventilation systems of the house. The fact,that it is extremely difficult to obtain permission to connect the boiler chimney to the ventilation system of an apartment building due to various bureaucratic and technical difficulties. It is for this reason that it is better to purchase a more expensive boiler with a sealed combustion chamber.
We will not consider cheap options, since savings on security are simply inappropriate. In addition, gas supplying organizations will only be allowed to install certified equipment.
It must be remembered that for heating 10 sq. M. a standard area needs to spend about 1 kW of energy. To heat an apartment with a total area of about 100 square meters, you will need a boiler with a capacity of at least 10-12 kW. It should also be noted that modern wall-mounted double-circuit gas boilers are made mainly with a capacity of 20 kW or more. This power reserve is more than enough for heating premises, even if these premises have rather high heat losses. In addition, a boiler that operates at full capacity will sooner exhaust its safety margin, or resource. And the gas consumption when working at full capacity will not please you.
As the first "contender" for the role of a home "boiler room", we took the ELEKTROLUX GCB 24 Basic X Fi boiler worth about 21,000 rubles. The products of this company are of high quality and durability. This boiler is perfect for heating and hot water supply of small spaces. The only inconvenience is the open combustion chamber.
This means that you need to obtain permission to connect this boiler to the ventilation system of the house. Otherwise, the operation of the boiler is no different from the operation of a double-circuit boiler with a sealed combustion chamber. The advantages of this boiler include the ability to work with the "Warm floor" system, the presence of an anti-freeze system, the presence of modulation (power regulation during operation). The boiler allows connecting the system to a remote control system (programmer), which makes working with the boiler even more convenient.
The Vaillant Plus VUW 202 / 3-5 double-circuit boiler with a sealed combustion chamber is much more expensive. Its cost is about 39,000 rubles. This is primarily due to the presence of a sealed combustion chamber with forced removal of combustion products. This boiler has an attractive design, is quite compact, easy to maintain and easy to use in daily use.
The boiler has a built-in expansion tank, a 3-speed circulation pump, and a system against liquid freezing. Alas, not a single, even the most reliable, technique can do without malfunctions and errors. The big advantage of this boiler is an automatic error detection system and an indication system that will allow you to quickly understand the situation and eliminate the error as soon as possible. Mistakes can be very different, for example, you just forgot to open the gas tap. The boiler will detect this and give you a signal.
The two-circuit gas wall-mounted boiler Micra 2 24 SE from HERMANN, costing about 39,500 rubles, has some advantages that competitors do not have. For example, the boiler has the ability to turn off the internal circulation pump if there are additional pumps in the system.
This saves energy costs. In addition, this boiler has the ability to install a more powerful smoke exhaust fan in the combustion chamber. This makes it possible to use a large chimney, which is not possible in all boilers. The features of these boilers also include a smooth ignition system, which significantly extends the life of the product and makes it safer.
It would be simply impossible and not right not to recall the products of BOSCH. For many years, the company has been producing high-quality heating equipment, which is very popular with customers. German precision and reliability, excellent design, excellent technical characteristics - these are the qualities that distinguish the products of this manufacturer. Bosch BW exclusive range of gas wall-mounted boilers, namely models ZSC 24-3 MFK / ZWC 24-3 MFK / ZWC 28-3 MFK / ZSC 24-3 MFA / ZSC 35-3 MFA / ZWC 24-3 MFA / ZWC 28- 3 MFA / ZWC 35-3 MFA I can satisfy the wishes and requirements of any discerning buyer. The boilers are manufactured with both conventional and sealed combustion chambers, automatic modulation of the gas burner flame, practically silent in operation.
All the boilers described above are excellent examples of European technology. It is extremely difficult to advise this or that model, and, most likely, it is not appropriate. Each boiler has its own unique design that will perfectly fit into the interior of your premises; you can expand the capabilities of each boiler by purchasing additional equipment. Only one piece of advice can be given. Unfortunately, the service network is not equally developed everywhere. Choose exactly the product that can be restored as soon as possible in your region. It is this indicator that is a fairly weighty argument when choosing heating equipment. Agree that being left without heating for several days due to the expectation of some broken part is extremely unpleasant. Moreover, there is a risk of freezing the coolant,and this can result in even more significant financial losses.
Additional equipment, radiators and piping
Additional equipment that you may need to equip an autonomous heating system includes special gas analyzers that can not only detect a gas leak in a timely manner, but also automatically close the gas pipeline. Most projects are carried out taking into account the installation of such control systems. You just have to choose the appropriate equipment from what the design and installation organization can offer. This must be done at the stage of work on a gas supply project, since all data, including the name of the selected boiler, its serial number must be included in the project documentation.
Pay special attention to valves that will be installed not only for water, but also for gas. Not only the durability of the equipment, but also safety largely depends on this. We will not talk about the danger of gas leaks, but the fact that a bad valve can lead to leakage of coolant from the heating system and thereby lead to damage to expensive equipment. As a result of a lack of coolant, the boiler may overheat (do not think that "smart" automation will always be able to save equipment from such troubles), many circulation pumps are not designed to work "dry", without a coolant.
The choice of radiators is also a crucial moment. Pay attention not only to the design, but also to the power of the radiators. The speed of warming up your room, the efficiency of the heating boiler will largely depend on this.
We hope that you were able to learn more about autonomous heating systems. This information will help you not only to visualize what the sellers and builders offer you, but also to more professionally consider the proposed cost estimate. And this, in turn, will save your money. Have a good choice.