A Modern Integrated Approach To The Access Control And Security System

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A Modern Integrated Approach To The Access Control And Security System
A Modern Integrated Approach To The Access Control And Security System

Video: A Modern Integrated Approach To The Access Control And Security System

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Video: Webinar: Building a secure, integrated - and touchless - access control system 2023, February
Anonim
  • Integrated home security system. Perimeter security
  • CCTV
  • Home alarm
  • Security alarm and access control system in a private house
  • Security and access control system at the enterprise
  • Installation of a security system, its cost, equipment manufacturers
Smart House
Smart House

Electronics so deeply penetrates our entire daily life that we, at times, simply do not notice its presence. Doors helpfully open when approaching, the car, after arming, automatically closes the windows and locks the locks. And electronics are responsible for all this. We have already reviewed the Smart Home system. Now let's talk about access control systems and burglar alarms. They are so closely related to each other that it makes no sense to consider each system separately. We will have to return to the “Smart Home” system more than once, since this very concept is the core around which all other control and life support systems of this or that object are formed, regardless of whether it is a private house or an office.

Some people prefer to have a physical guard - a strong guard, armed, and even with a dog. But this method of protecting premises and objects has long been outdated, and it is not always effective, although it is impossible to completely exclude the physical presence of people in the very process of protecting an object. Technical means of security work quickly, accurately, the capabilities of such systems are not commensurably higher than that of a person, it is impossible to bribe them, but the “last word” remains with those persons who are responsible for the security of the facility. Any object that you plan to put under protection must, first of all, be technically competent and fully prepared. It only seems at first glance that it is enough to install sensors and you don't have to worry about the property. Everything is much more complicated.

Let's step by step analyze the operation of the alarm system using the example of a private house, or an office, which is located in a separate building. To do this, we will go through a kind of path from the gate to the door of the house, walk through the interior. It should be noted once again that you should not unnecessarily overload the facility with various security systems. Video surveillance and access control. Everywhere you need to be guided by the principle of reasonable sufficiency. Some systems may simply be unacceptable in everyday life due to their technical features.

Integrated home security system. Perimeter security

The construction of any security system must begin with an accurate description of the object itself, an analysis of possible threats, an assessment of possible damage from unlawful actions. All this will allow you to more accurately determine the costs of building a security system for the facility.

Any house has an adjacent territory. The task of any technical security system is to detect an intrusion on a guarded object as early as possible and to notify the guards about it as quickly and efficiently as possible. The simplest means that protects our territory from penetration is a fence (stone, concrete, metal, etc.). This is the first obstacle to be overcome by the offender. And this obstacle is the very first line of protection, which, with the presence of special sensors, will not only notify us about the penetration of the object, but also indicate the exact place of penetration. It is extremely important not only to choose the right security system, but also to properly mount, configure its operation, exclude areas that will not enter the protected area. This is possible only with an integrated approach using several types of security systems.There are many options for equipping the site perimeter with a wide variety of security systems.

Country house security
Country house security

Consider some of the most common types of perimeter security systems:

  • Wire-radio wave security system, the principle of which is based on the creation of a certain area of ​​object detection around special highly sensitive elements, which consist of two parallel insulated wires. These wires connect the receiver and transmitter together. The distance between such devices is about 5 meters. Such a system can be located not only on the upper part of the fence (in the form of a visor), but also near the ground, on trees, on the walls of houses. The system is very resistant to negative environmental influences (precipitation in the form of snow, rain, fog, wind up to 35 m / s, sunlight), the system is configured so as not to react to small animals and birds (mice, cats, crows), do not react to the movement of vehicles (no closer than 1.5–2 m).
  • Capacitive security systems. Due to its relatively low cost and high efficiency, this is perhaps the most common system that is installed at sites. Install it on the top of the fence and it looks like a stretched wire in several rows. Sensitive elements (wire) are attached to the posts on insulators and the whole system is closed in a common ring. This system is triggered by approaching or touching an object to the contour.
  • Active radio-beam security systems (one and two-position) are a special microwave sensor that creates an electromagnetic field in front of it. This security system works in the same way as the spatial orientation system of a bat. The sensors propagate radio waves that are reflected from objects and are recorded by the device. When a foreign object appears in the protected area, the electromagnetic field changes and the system registers an alarm signal. Due to a wide range of settings and a large range, as well as the possibility of a hidden location, these security systems are actively used in everyday life.
  • Vibration security systems are designed to detect intrusions due to vibrations that arise at the time of a person's contact with any obstacle. These systems are also widespread, high detection accuracy. Vibration security systems are easy to install and easy to maintain. Vibration systems include special seismic sensors that can notify about a possible digging. Such sensors are installed in the ground near fences.

There are a number of other more complex and sophisticated perimeter security systems, but they are quite expensive and are not widely used for protecting small objects. Although our housing should be safe, we should not go beyond certain limits and turn the house into a repository of the country's gold reserves or a maximum security prison. When installing such perimeter security systems, you must first agree on which service will respond to signals from such a security system. It is possible to improve the perimeter security system by installing outdoor video surveillance and automatic control of the area lighting.

CCTV

A modern video surveillance system includes several components:

  • CCTV cameras (outdoor, indoor, analog, IP, USB, etc.);
  • special fasteners for cameras (rotary devices, protective caps, additional fasteners, etc.).

All modern video monitoring and fixation systems are based on a personal computer, which is equipped with video input cards and special software. Video recording systems, which used videotape as a storage device, have long been a thing of the past. Modern video surveillance systems allow continuous monitoring of the entire protected area with simultaneous recording of the material, its software compression and archiving. At the same time, the number and type of connected video cameras is limited only by your financial capabilities and needs. The computer provides reception of the signal from the surveillance camera, transmission of the image to the monitor and simultaneous recording of the signal. The image on the monitor can be displayed in full screen mode,and in split-screen format (the signal from several cameras is simultaneously broadcast on the monitor). Video recording can be performed in several modes: during a specified period of time (according to the schedule), at the moment of receiving a signal from other security equipment, etc. There are also several types of video recording options: video recording can be carried out either continuously or in the form of frames with a certain time frequency. This allows you to significantly reduce the cost of additional storage media for archived information. The software of video surveillance and fixation systems allows operators to accurately determine the causes of an alarm, software settings allow you to see the most important events that you should pay attention to - an unexpected appearance in the observation area of ​​an object, rapid movement of an object, etc.At the same time, the video surveillance system can be configured in such a way that it does not trigger on small objects - small animals, birds, which in turn allows the operator to better observe the main objects. Another feature of such systems is the ability to broadcast a signal over the network, including via the Internet, which allows you to monitor the object regardless of your location.which allows you to monitor the object regardless of where you are.which allows you to monitor the object regardless of your location.

Object observation
Object observation

The software allows you to fully implement such functions of the video surveillance system as the analysis of the resulting image. In other words, the computer program recognizes license plates of cars, controls the number of displaced objects, it is possible to create a database of the faces of people who have the right to move in the area of ​​responsibility of video surveillance. This significantly improves the quality of protection of a particular object. All these data are also recorded and stored in the archive. Do not forget that this system is not perfect and in some cases it is simply impossible to do without operator intervention. In addition to the fact that the video surveillance system has the ability to broadcast the signal over the network, with the presence of certain hardware and software, the signal from the video surveillance system can be received via cellular communication channels.There can be several options here: from a simple SMS message about a system trigger, to the transfer of photos or videos. As we noted earlier, this video surveillance and fixation system can be located not only in a guarded area, but also in a house, office, or at a production site. If everything is quite simple with the video surveillance system software (it is developed and configured for each system individually and does not cause any particular difficulties for the computer user), then I would like to say a few words separately about video cameras.at the production site. If everything is quite simple with the video surveillance system software (it is developed and configured for each system individually and does not cause any particular difficulties for the computer user), then I would like to say a few words about video cameras separately.at the production site. If everything is quite simple with the video surveillance system software (it is developed and configured for each system individually and does not cause any particular difficulties for the computer user), then I would like to say a few words about video cameras separately.

CCTV Cameras
CCTV Cameras

CCTV cameras can be of a wide variety of shapes and sizes, depending on the purpose and functions embedded in them, as well as wired and wireless (by type of connection). Naturally, outdoor surveillance cameras can cost several times more expensive than those used indoors, since outdoor cameras have to withstand the onslaught of adverse weather conditions (moisture, frost, heat), possible mechanical impact (strikes with hard objects, attempts to steal). In addition, one should not forget that all cameras have different resolution, there are color and black and white cameras, night surveillance cameras, miniature cameras for hidden installation. For wireless cameras, you may need special devices that will not only provide high-quality signal reception,but they can also significantly increase the distance to the camera installation site due to their sensitivity. Unfortunately, there is no single standard for marking video cameras. Each manufacturer codes in its own way in the name of its product the characteristics inherent in it, and these data will say little to a person who is not familiar with such technical subtleties.

Home alarm

Any alarm signals are transmitted to the security console. Security systems for premises are very diverse. Their main task is to timely detect intrusion into the object using a wide variety of technical means and transmit the signal to the central console. More sophisticated and sophisticated security systems can not only detect and record (audio and video recording) the violator's actions, but also actively resist illegal actions. So, for example, some especially important objects can be equipped with special sensors that, when touched, affect the intruder with an electrical impulse.

Security systems
Security systems

In addition, such security systems most often work in conjunction with fire alarms and access control (restriction) systems. The whole complex of technical means. Which are used in the security system can be rather conditionally divided into the following categories:

  • a central control panel for all security (security and fire) alarm systems, which receives signals from the rest of the equipment located directly at the facilities, analyzes their signals and issues an appropriate executive command;
  • equipment located directly at the guarded facility (control and monitoring equipment). This equipment collects information that comes from a variety of sensors, processes it, transmits information to the central console, issues certain executive commands to the equipment at the facility (turns on and off the alarm, controls lighting, etc.). It is on the complexity of this equipment that all the functions that the alarm system of your choice can perform depend.
  • sensors, video recorders, detectors, etc.

When you are on the threshold of your home (office), you first of all need to turn off the alarm before you enter the premises. This is where our acquaintance with the structure of the building security system begins. There are several ways to disable the security alarm. For this, a special device (reader) can be mounted near the door, which allows you to disable the security system using:

  • entering the code on a special board;
  • using a programmable chip;
  • using a special magnetic card;
  • other, more sophisticated alarm disabling systems (for example: fingerprint reading, contactless identification devices).

These are the very elements of access control that work in conjunction with burglar alarms. Only those persons who have special alarm cut-off devices can access the premises. The security system, and even more so the security and fire system, is not completely turned off, but simply switches to another mode of operation. The fire alarm, the operation of which we examined in the previous article, works independently of the security alarm and cannot be disabled. The security system when removing the object from control on the central console can work as follows. All sensors of the security system continue to work as usual - they register the movements of people, objects, opening doors, etc., while transmitting all the information to the control equipment.Some of the premises can still remain under protection, i.e. access for all people (for all staff) can only be opened in part of the premises. You might argue that such complications are completely out of place in a private home. I must disagree with you.

Smart home
Smart home

Let's take a simple example. You have weapons in your house (sports, hunting, collection). One of the requirements for storing multiple weapons is a safe and alarm. It can be assumed that in a private house a separate room will be allocated for these purposes. At the moment when you disarm the house on the central control panel. The armory room is still guarded and in case of unauthorized access to this room, an alarm signal will be sent to the central console. In the case of an office, in which certain rooms remain protected, everything is simple - these are premises where any inventory items, documentation, information storage devices, etc. can be stored. At the moment when all visitors gain access to the office, these rooms are not disarmed at the central console.Only a strictly limited circle of people has access to such premises. This is very easy to achieve. Each person receives a specially programmed key (chip, key fob, card). All doors are equipped with special reading devices (the same as at the entrance to the building, with which we disarmed our object). The information goes to the control and monitoring equipment, which processes the signal, disarms the room and unlocks access. In offices, in addition to door locks, special turnstiles and other devices for restricting access to the premises can be installed. The security, access control system can work in conjunction with the property movement control system within the same building.Software and special sensors will track the movement of any property within the room and in one way or another (blocking the door, giving a light and sound signal) prevent the unauthorized movement of the object outside the protected area.

In addition, the security system, access control, control of the movement of objects can perform another important function - to control and record working time. Remember the old films where workers were shown going to the factory. At the entrance to the enterprise, they handed in their pass (this was done at a strictly defined time, before the start of work), received an internal pass, which was then handed over to the accounting department in the shop or another production facility. At the end of the working day, the staff took their internal passes (tokens) and exchanged them for regular passes at the checkpoint of the enterprise. Thus, double recording of working time and location of personnel was made. Roughly the same principle is used as the basis for the operation of an automatic time tracking system. Coming to the workplace, or rather to the entrance to the office,the employee falls into the "field of view" of a complex security system (more precisely, a control system). By dialing a special code, or using a personal card (chip), the employee gets access to the premises. From that time on, the accounting of his working time begins. In case of dismissal of an employee, you can easily calculate not only the time that he spent at the workplace, but also all the work performed.

Security alarm and access control system in a private house

I hope that after reading this material, you do not have the idea that our world is turning into a global computerized machine, in which we are little cogs. Let's take a simple example to analyze the operation of this entire complex control system and it will become clear to you that such systems are not only useful and convenient, but also very often vital. Suppose that all (or almost all) of the security and access system elements described above are installed in your house.

You drive home from work in your car. When the car approaches the gate of your area, a special video control system will be able to recognize the license plate and give the command to open the gate automatically. Suppose that due to heavy pollution or difficult weather conditions, the automation did not recognize the license plate. In this case, you can use a special remote control for opening the gate. A video surveillance system for the perimeter or active radio-beam sensors (depending on what is installed) will automatically turn on the lighting of the area adjacent to the house. I should note that the perimeter security system is rarely armed at the central control panel. The control over the signals of this system is most often carried out either by the owner of the house himself, or by a specially hired security service,which is located directly at the facility. This is due to the fact that this system requires constant monitoring by a person. Otherwise, false calls to the alarm group on system signals can hurt your finances.

Security alarms
Security alarms

Then you have to perform an obligatory action - to disarm the house from protection on the central control panel. As we said, this is done very simply: by touching the reader with a special chip (card), by typing a code, etc. There are options when the security system is turned off using the remote control, but this method has its weaknesses and is not always acceptable.

All other actions of the security alarm depend on how you program it. For example, you can enable the staff who serves the house, in your absence, to provide access to some of the premises of the house, while the rest will remain protected. The actions of the personnel, in turn, will be recorded by a video surveillance system and video recording. It is thanks to such control systems that the facts of child abuse in the absence of parents and the facts of property theft were made public. These footage of video recording can then be used in court as evidence. A video surveillance system for the perimeter, as well as a perimeter security system, will help you control any events that occur in the field of view of surveillance cameras without leaving your home. This is very convenient, for example, in the casewhen children play outside in the absence of adults. The same access control system will protect your child from possible injuries in the garage, workshop, etc. A child simply cannot get there on his own, even if he has a key to the door. The security system will promptly notify you of this.

All such electronic systems work in conjunction with the previously considered Smart Home systems.

Security and access control system at the enterprise

Security systems, access control and movement at the enterprise are much more versatile than those used at home. Very often, such systems work in close cooperation with the physical security of the facility (the presence of a person at the protected facility is mandatory). We will not consider all the subtleties that are associated with the protection of the perimeter of buildings, but we will consider the system of security, access, control of the movement of material values ​​and time tracking using the example of a car sales and repair company.

In the absence of staff (outside working hours), the perimeter of the enterprise is guarded by special technical means and a video surveillance system, which is monitored by the operator at the facility itself. The operator has the ability to inspect the building from the outside, conduct video surveillance of the internal premises, but does not have access to the building itself. The building is protected by a security and fire alarm system, the signal from which is sent either to the central security console and to the external security console, or to the central fire console and also the external security console. The video surveillance system operates throughout the entire facility continuously.

Central security console
Central security console

Before the start of the working day, a person who has the right to access the facility gains access to the territory, disarms the facility and enables personnel to gain access to their workplaces. At the same time, part of the premises in the building of the enterprise is still protected by the central control panel, since only a limited number of people have access to these premises. Such premises can be the cash desk of the enterprise, accounting, management offices, warehouse, etc. These premises will be disarmed by those persons who have appropriate access using special individual means of access (chips, cards, the presence of codes from special locks, etc.). In parallel with the access control system, a material handling system and a time attendance system are launched.Not all employees start counting their working hours from the moment they gain access to the common premises of the enterprise. For example, personnel who work on a computer should be located directly at their workplace, and not just on the territory of the enterprise. Control over such personnel is carried out in several ways:

  • fixing the signal from the room access system;
  • video recording;
  • work with a computer can be carried out exclusively using a personal access card, without which an employee cannot move around the territory.

Accounting for actual working time is necessary not only for employees to approach their duties more responsibly, but also to fulfill all requirements for compliance with labor laws, sanitary norms and rules. A "smart" system for controlling working time will notify the employee who works at the computer monitor in advance about the need to take a mandatory break after a certain time of work. In addition, all personnel have the opportunity not only to control their working time, but also to assess the quality of the work performed. All this can be done using a computer without leaving the workplace.

The system for monitoring and recording the movement of material assets, which operates at this enterprise, is very simple and convenient in operation. A simple example. When servicing a car, it becomes necessary to replace one or another part. The master draws up an application on a computer and sends it to the warehouse. The storekeeper receives this application, prepares all the necessary documents, the object movement control system automatically verifies the marking of the part and the received application and makes it possible to issue exactly the desired part. Otherwise, the master simply will not be able to take this part out of the warehouse. The time that a person spends on obtaining this part will be counted in the total working time, since the corresponding application has been issued. But if the system detects that a person left the workplace without reason,then an additional investigation will be carried out on this fact and a decision will be made whether to consider this time a worker or not. Moreover, the employee can independently determine his work schedule, of course, having previously coordinated it with the management and working out the necessary time additionally. The time tracking system will count this time.

The company's clients have the opportunity to move around the territory only within the free access zone or using a special client card, which makes it possible, for example, to be present in the car repair area, to get access to the accounting department to pay for the order. The rest of the premises will be inaccessible to the visitor. It may happen that a visitor somehow enters a territory that is closed to him. The alarm will notify about this, but not by sending a signal to the central security console, but by transmitting a signal to the internal security service, which exercises control during the working day.

Despite the fact that during the working day at the enterprise there are zones of free access (trade and exhibition hall, order table, visitor room, sanitary unit, cafe, etc.) - this area will be monitored by a video surveillance system and video recording, a fire alarm system, a control system for the movement of objects (commodity and material values). This will allow not only to monitor visitors, but also to exclude the occurrence of emergency situations (fires, theft).

At the end of the working day, the person responsible for turning on the alarm will arm the facility. The control and monitoring equipment will automatically check the performance of the entire system, control the premises (absence of visitors, personnel, etc.) and notify the central security console about the closure of the facility. After that, all the data collected during the day will be checked and archived again. Subsequently, employees who have special access to databases can use these archives for various kinds of analysis: the efficiency of using working time, the absence of theft, all kinds of violations of the security regime.

I hope that these examples will allow you to get a more accurate idea of ​​such a complex complex as a security system, or rather of the whole complex (security and fire alarms, video surveillance and video recording, accounting and access control, control of the movement of objects, etc.) and about those multilateral problems that this system allows to solve.

Installation of a security system, its cost, equipment manufacturers

Installation of such systems should be carried out exclusively by enterprises that have not only experience, but also all permits (licenses) for this type of activity. Due to the fact that these systems perform a huge number of different functions, it is necessary to be more careful in choosing a contractor that will supply, install, and commission this complex equipment. A variety of specialists should be involved in this work - from builders to law enforcement agencies, who will further monitor the performance of this system. The complex of works that are carried out during the installation of such equipment, the cost of these works can be equated to the cost of the object itself, on which the system is installed. However, with correct calculation, qualified installation,maintenance and operation, such systems pay for themselves very quickly.

Signaling
Signaling

There are a lot of manufacturers of security equipment. Among them are such well-known companies as BOSCH, 3M, Axis Communications and many others. If you decide to automate your home and production as much as possible, then you should pay attention to quality products. Selection mistakes can be costly in the process. Companies that produce such equipment and software will not only assist you in choosing the right components of the security system, but will also help you choose a company that will carry out such a complex project in a qualified and guaranteed manner. Most often, representatives of such firms work with certain regional companies that are able to solve any assigned tasks in the shortest possible time.

It seems to me that you were able to learn a lot of new and interesting things about the work of security and protection systems.

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