Insulation Materials: How To Create Weather In Your Home

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Insulation Materials: How To Create Weather In Your Home
Insulation Materials: How To Create Weather In Your Home

Video: Insulation Materials: How To Create Weather In Your Home

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: How to Insulate a floor to prevent Cold from below with EcoTec FloorFoam 2023, February
Anonim
  • Moisture protection

    • Waterproofing
    • Vapor barrier
  • How to keep warm

    • Preventing thermal insulation
    • Reflective insulation
Thermal insulation
Thermal insulation

What are the basic requirements for insulating materials? Of course, they must provide high-quality insulation. It is also, of course, important to consider their environmental friendliness and safety for the health of people in the building. And, finally, the question of the economic feasibility of choosing one or another insulating material is always relevant. So let's consider from this point of view the insulation materials available to builders today.

Moisture protection

Water, water … water is everywhere … Undoubtedly, we cannot live without water, but … Precipitation, atmospheric moisture, ground and melt water, condensation - all this can not only create discomfort for people living or work in the building, but also adversely affect condition and durability of the building itself. Therefore, it is so important to provide high-quality protection against moisture in all its manifestations. The group of insulating materials that perform this task is perhaps the most extensive. Let's start with her.

This group includes materials to provide the following types of protection:

  • waterproofing
  • vapor barrier

Waterproofing

Waterproofing can serve two purposes:

  • Anti-filtration waterproofing is protection against water penetration into premises and structures located under water or underground, as well as through hydraulic structures (basements, buried premises, tunnels, mines) and protection against water leakage, including operational and technical water (wells, caissons, dams, canals, reservoirs, sedimentation tanks, pools, etc.)
  • Anti-corrosion waterproofing is the protection of building materials or materials from which all kinds of structures are made from the harmful effects of water, both filtering and simply washing (above-ground metal structures, structures located in the zone of variable water level).
Waterproofing
Waterproofing

There are a lot of waterproofing materials. All of them can be divided into several types depending on the type:

  • metal sheets
  • roll or sheet materials
  • materials applied to the treated surface in liquid form
  • mineral-based binders
  • materials based on bentonite clays
  • various dry building mixtures with a penetrating effect.

The need for high-quality waterproofing arises everywhere. However, depending on the conditions, purposes and materials used, different types of waterproofing are used.

Waterproofing type Purpose and place of use Materials used Paint shop Anti-capillary and anti-corrosion protection of concrete and metal structures. In this case, the waterproofing layer is quite thin - only up to 2 mm thick
  • polymer varnishes and paints
  • hot bitumen and bitumen-polymer coatings
  • cold epoxy-rubber compounds
Plastering Multi-layer coating, also available for anti-corrosion and anti-filtration protection. The thickness of the layer of such waterproofing can reach 2 cm, it is most often used to protect reinforced concrete structures.
  • Cold and hot asphalt mortars for plaster
  • Mastics
  • Cement mixtures applied by torquetting
  • Polymer concrete coatings
  • Polymer cement compositions
  • Colloidal cement mortar
Okleechnaya Multilayer (3-4 layers) coating, most often used for waterproofing roofs.
  • Bituminous (brizol, gidroizol, gidrostekloizol, isol, etc.)
  • Bituminous polymer (mostoplast, isoplast, etc.) roll materials.
  • The most modern and relevant solutions are geomembranes based on elastomers, as well as karmisole, bernisol and berisol.
  • For gluing roll materials, bituminous, bitumen-polymer, bitumen-rubber, polymer mastics are used.
Cast Today it is considered the most reliable method of waterproofing. However, the process of arranging such waterproofing is quite laborious and expensive, therefore, so far it is used mainly in especially critical areas that require particularly reliable and durable protection. It consists of several layers on a horizontal surface with a total thickness of 20-25 mm, or vertical filling behind a wall or formwork with a thickness of 30 to 50 mm.
  • Asphalt mastics and mortars
  • Asphalt claydite concrete
  • Bitumen perlite
  • Foam epoxy and other foams.
Zasypnaya By its design and purpose, it is similar to cast waterproofing - waterproofing materials are poured into cavities and layers, enclosed by formwork. The thickness of such a waterproofing layer can reach 50 mm.
  • Hydrophobic sands and powders
  • Asphaltoizol
Impregnating It is used for impregnation of elements of prefabricated structures made of porous material (concrete, asbestos cement, limestone, tuff). The use of this type of waterproofing is especially justified for structures, the elements of which are subjected to intense stress (piles, pipes, foundation blocks, etc.)
  • Bitumen
  • Coal tar pitch
  • Petrolatum
  • Polymer varnishes
Injection This method of waterproofing is used most often to repair a waterproofing layer. In this case, a special binder is injected into the joints and cracks, as well as into the soil adjacent to the structure or structure.

Modern polymer compositions

Mounted This type of waterproofing is used in particularly difficult cases: specially made elements are attached to the main structure using assembly ties
  • Metal sheets
  • Plastic plates
  • Fiberglass
  • Rigid polyvinyl chloride
  • Prefabricated reinforced concrete products manufactured at the factory and already at the production stage reinforced with an additional paint or plaster waterproofing layer.
Penetrating This type of waterproofing provides effective waterproofing of concrete structures. One of the most progressive methods of construction or restoration of waterproofing of concrete foundation blocks or other buried structures. The technology of penetrating waterproofing is based on a special chemical composition of the waterproofing material, which, being applied to the concrete surface from the outside or inside of the structure, penetrates into the pores of the concrete, crystallizing and thus providing not only waterproofing, but also the strength, frost resistance and resistance of concrete to aggressive environments.

Special dry mixtures, which contain cement, quartz sand and special chemical additives, which react with the substances present in concrete under the influence of water and form more complex salts, which, when interacting with water, acquire a crystalline structure. Filling the pores of concrete, such crystals become a reliable barrier in the path of water without disturbing air exchange

Sprayed Waterproofing of this type can be used to protect against water in almost any area: roofs, foundations, underground rooms, basements and even artificial reservoirs. The distinctive properties of such waterproofing are high adhesion to almost any surface, fire resistance, no seams, durability.

Liquid rubber, which is a two-component composition based on a modified bitumen-polymer emulsion. Such a composition is applied in liquid form to the surface to be treated and instantly acquires the properties of an elastic, seamless coating

Well, everything is clear with the purpose of waterproofing - protecting buildings and structures from the harmful effects of water and corrosive environments, as well as preventing moisture from penetrating into the structure. The main parameters that make it possible to determine the quality of a waterproofing material are water resistance and moisture resistance, as well as resistance to aggressive substances dissolved in water. By the way, moisture resistance and water resistance are by no means the same.

Water resistance is the ability of a material to retain its properties during prolonged saturation with water.

Moisture resistance is an indicator that determines the ability of a material to maintain its properties and resist destruction with frequent moistening and drying. Speaking of waterproofing, we note one more parameter. This is water resistance - the ability of a material to keep water out.

In addition to the fact that high-quality waterproofing allows you to maintain the integrity of the building, it significantly improves its thermal insulation. And in connection with the issue of thermal insulation, one should also note such a moment as providing vapor barrier.

Vapor barrier

The vapor barrier is designed to maintain the optimal operation of the thermal insulation layer. The fact is that condensation inevitably forms on the layer of heat-insulating material due to the temperature difference. If you do not ensure its timely evaporation and allow the penetration of condensate into the insulation, the thermal insulation material will lose its durability and cease to cope with its task. Roofs and facades of buildings are the main areas where vapor barrier must be applied.

Vapor barrier
Vapor barrier

The most important property of a vapor barrier material is vapor permeability, that is, the ability to pass air and water vapor. The most common type of vapor barrier today is a variety of film materials and breathable membranes, the vapor permeability of which is achieved through microperforation and a special chemical composition. And although such materials have been used in the West for a long time, they have appeared on the Russian market relatively recently. Not so long ago, for these purposes, mainly roofing felt, roofing felt, foil were used. Currently, such modern materials as Izospan, Yutafol, Yutavek, Tyvek are becoming increasingly popular. By the way, Tyvek was developed by the world leader in the production of film materials, DuPont.

It is noteworthy that in modern construction materials are used that combine hydro and vapor barrier properties, which greatly simplifies the design and reduces the cost of providing high-quality insulation.

How to keep warm

It is not enough to protect the building and the people in it from excessive moisture; it is also necessary to think about the thermal insulation of the building. Whatever temperature regime is assumed in the assignment, it is probably impossible to do without thermal insulation. After all, heat-insulating material allows not only to keep heat in the building in the cold period, but also to keep it cool in the heat. In part, thermal insulation is provided by the building material itself, from which the building was erected and also external and internal finishing. For example, natural stone has low thermal conductivity. Modern facade plaster also improves the thermal insulation properties of the walls. Some of the materials used for waterproofing are designed to keep warm as well. And yet, you cannot do without full-fledged thermal insulation if you want to live and work in a warm place in winter, and not to languish from the heat in summer.The choice of thermal insulation materials is enormous today. Insulation materials of various types are presented on the building materials market:

  • roll and cord (mats, bundles, cords)
  • piece (blocks, plates, bricks, cylinders, segments)
  • free-flowing (perlite sand, all kinds of powders, granules)
  • loose (cotton wool)

In order to make the right choice of insulation, you need to know its properties. Thermal conductivity is the main characteristic of a heat-insulating material. This is, in fact, its ability to transmit heat through itself.

By the type of its action, thermal insulation is divided into two groups:

  • preventing thermal insulation (reduces heat loss by using materials with low thermal conductivity)
  • reflective insulation (reduces heat loss by reducing infrared radiation)

Preventing thermal insulation

Preventive insulation is the traditional way of insulating a building. There are three types of thermal insulation materials, based on the raw materials used for their production:

  • organic
  • inorganic
  • mixed

Organic thermal insulation materials are made from natural raw materials: woodworking and agricultural waste, peat, as well as various plastics, cement. This is a fairly large group of materials on the market in a wide range. Almost all organic heat insulators are characterized by low fire, water and biological resistance. As a rule, organic heat insulators are used in areas where the surface and ambient temperature does not rise above 150 degrees, as well as as the middle layer of multilayer structures - plaster facades, under wall cladding, in triple panels, etc.

Organic thermal insulation materials
Organic thermal insulation materials

Materials made of gas-filled plastics (foam glass, expanded polystyrene, foamed plastics, cellular plastics, honeycomb plastics, etc.) are more resistant to moisture, fire and bioagents. Cellular plastics currently occupy a significant market share for thermal insulation materials. Heaters based on them enjoy well-deserved popularity due to their physical properties, low cost, ease of processing and durability.

A more detailed list of organic heat insulators on the market is shown in the table below.

Product type Raw materials Properties Arbolite products
  • Portland cement
  • Fine-fiber components: sawdust, straw and reed chops, wood chips, shavings
  • Mineralizer with which the product is processed
  • Chemical additives: soluble glass, sulphate alumina, calcium chloride
  • The most common in modern construction is arbolite, which has a density of 500-700 kg / m 3
  • thermal conductivity of this material is 0.08-0.12 W / (m * K),
  • compressive strength - 0.5-3.5 MPa
  • Bending stretch - 0.4-1.0 MPa
Polyvinyl chloride foam (PPVC)

Produced by porous polyvinyl chloride resins

  • Average density of the material - 0.1 kg / m 3
  • Distinguish between hard and soft polyvinyl chloride, which makes it possible to use it as a heat-insulating material for facades, as well as for walls, floors and roofs, as well as doors.
Particle boards (chipboard)
  • Organic fibrous components (as a rule, specially prepared wood wool) - 90%
  • Synthetic based resins - 7-9%
  • Hydrofibrating agents, antiseptics, fire retardants
  • Density -500-1000 kg / m 3
  • Tensile strength - min 0.2-0.5 MPa
  • Flexural strength - min 10-25 MPa
  • Humidity - 5-12%
  • Swelling in water - 5-30%
Fiber Insulation Boards (DVIP)
  • Non-commercial timber
  • Waste from woodworking and sawmilling
  • Paper muculature
  • Corn stalks
  • Straw
  • All kinds of binders (synthetic resins) and chemical additives (water repellents, fire retardants, antiseptics)
  • Density - up to 250 kg / m 3
  • Flexural strength - up to 12 MPa
  • Thermal conductivity level - no more than 0.07 W / (m * K)
Polyurethane foam (PPU) Produced by a chemical reaction involving polyester, water, diisocyanide, emulsifiers and catalysts
  • Density - 40-80 kg / m 3 (PU foam with a density above 50 kg / m 3 also acquires waterproofing properties)
  • PUF has the lowest thermal conductivity among thermal insulation materials used today in construction - 0.019-0.028 W / M * K
  • In addition to its heat and waterproofing properties, it has a high acoustic insulation capacity.
  • Possesses high chemical resistance
  • It is used for sprayed thermal insulation, allows to provide waterproofing and insulation of structures of any complexity, avoiding cold bridges.
Mipora It is made by whipping an aqueous emulsion of urea-formaldehyde resin, to which glycerin is added to reduce fragility. Also, this material contains petroleum sulfonic acids (as a foaming agent) and organic acids (as a curing catalyst)

Mipora can be supplied in the form of blocks of slabs or chips, or it can be poured into enclosing structures and cavities, where it hardens at room temperature.

  • Density - does not exceed 20 kg / m 3 (this is almost 10 times less than that of a cork)
  • Thermal conductivity - 0.03 W / (m * K)
  • Mipora does not burn at temperatures up to 500 °, but only charred. Besides. Flame retardants are introduced into the composition of the mipora, which also prevent its ignition in an oxygen environment.
  • Mipora is sensitive to aggressive chemical attack
  • Has significant water absorption
Expanded polystyrene (PPS) Styrofoam, composed of 98% air and 2% polystyrene derived from oil, in a step-by-step process. Also, a small amount of various modifiers, for example, fire retardants, are introduced into the composition of expanded polystyrene.
  • Thermal conductivity - 0.037-0.041 W / (m * K)
  • Low hygroscopicity provides excellent waterproofing properties of expanded polystyrene
  • Resistant to corrosion
  • Does not create a favorable environment for the development of microflora, is not susceptible to the influence of bioagents
  • Has a very low flammability. Basically, it is a self-extinguishing material. During combustion, the amount of thermal energy released by expanded polystyrene is 7 times less than that of wood.
Foamed polyethylene It is made of polyethylene with the addition of hydrocarbons as a foaming agent.
  • Density - 25-50 kg / m 3
  • Thermal conductivity - 0.044-0.051 W / m * K
  • Used as a noise and vapor barrier
  • It is used at temperatures ranging from -40 C ° to +100 C °
  • Low water absorption
  • High chemical and biological resistance
Fibrolite A board made of thin, narrow wood shavings (wood wool) and an inorganic binder (usually Portland cement, sometimes magnesia binder).
  • Density - 300-500kg / m 3
  • Thermal conductivity - 0.08-0.1 W / (m * K)
  • As the tests show, thanks to inorganic additives, fiberboard has quite good indicators of fire resistance, biological and chemical resistance. It can be used in conditions of high humidity, for example, for finishing rooms where swimming pools are located, etc.
  • Has good acoustic absorption properties
Sotoplasts
  • A material consisting of thin-walled cells, most often of a hexagonal shape - honeycombs. However, there are honeycomb cells with a different shape of cells. The honeycomb filler can be made of paper or fabric based on cellulose, organic, glass, carbon fibers, as well as films.
  • Phenolic, epoxy and other thermoactive resins are used as a binder.
  • The outer panels of the honeycomb are made of thin laminated plastic.

The properties of honeycomb plastics depend on what material was used as raw material for the manufacture of honeycomb filler, as well as on the size of the cell, the type and amount of resin used as a binder

Inorganic insulation materials are available on the market in an even wider range. All kinds of mineral raw materials are used for their production: rocks, slag, glass, asbestos. Heaters of this type include mineral and glass wool, products made of them, some lightweight concretes on expanded perlite, vermiculite and other porous aggregates, cellular heat-insulating concretes, asbestos, asbestos-containing, ceramic materials, foam glass. The first place in terms of production volume among all thermal insulation materials is mineral wool. The most popular cotton wool from manufacturers such as Isover, Isoroc, Rockwool. However, domestic analogues of more than decent quality are also presented on the Russian market.

Mineral insulation
Mineral insulation

Mineral heaters are available in a variety of types. It can be roll materials, and mats, and rigid plates, and bulk materials. We will consider only the main ones.

Type of material Raw materials Properties Mineral wool Depending on the raw material, mineral wool can be stone (basalt, dolomite, diabase, limestone, etc.) and slag (slags from ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy).

In addition to mineral raw materials, the composition of mineral wool contains binders: phenolic or urea. Cotton wool with a phenolic binder is more preferable for construction work, as it is a more waterproof material than mineral wool with a carbamide binder.

  • Mineral wool is a non-combustible material. In addition, it is able to successfully prevent the spread of fire, therefore it is also used for fire protection and fire insulation.
  • Mineral wool is used as an effective acoustic insulation because of its high sound absorption.
  • Extremely low hygroscopicity.
  • High chemical resistance.
  • Mineral wool provides negligible shrinkage, which ensures the preservation of the geometric dimensions of the material during the entire service life and prevents the formation of cold bridges.
  • The disadvantage of mineral wool is its high vapor permeability. Therefore, mineral wool insulation often requires additional vapor barrier.
Glass wool For the production of glass wool, the same raw materials are used as for the production of glass or waste from the glass industry.
  • Glass wool fibers have a greater thickness and length than mineral wool. Due to this, glass wool has a higher strength and resilience.
  • The density of glass wool in a loose state is not higher than 130 kg / m 3.
  • Thermal conductivity - 0.030–0.052 W / M * K.
  • Temperature resistance - does not exceed 450 ° C.
  • Glass wool is widely used as a sound insulator.
  • Highly resistant to chemical attack.
  • Non-hygroscopic.
  • Resistant to corrosion.
  • Non-flammable, does not emit toxic substances when exposed to fire.
Ceramic wool It is produced by high-speed centrifugation or blowing from aluminum and silicon oxides, zirconium.
  • Ceramic wool has a significantly higher thermal stability than glass wool and even surpasses mineral wool in this indicator. The maximum operating temperature for ceramic wool products is over 1000 ° C.
  • Thermal conductivity - 0.13-0.16 W / M * K (at a temperature of 600 C °).
  • Density - up to 350 kg / m 3.
  • At temperatures above 100 ° C, ceramic wool acquires electrical insulating properties.
  • High chemical resistance.
  • Products made of ceramic wool are resistant to various deformations.

Mixed thermal insulation materials are made on the basis of mixtures of asbestos and various additives (mica, diatomite, perlite, dolomite, etc.), as well as mineral binders. From this mixture and water, a plastic "dough" is kneaded, which hardens when it dries. From the asbestos dough that has not yet hardened, coatings are made directly on insulated structures or semi-finished products are obtained: plates and various shells. Asbestos-containing heaters have a fairly high temperature resistance - they can be used at high temperatures (up to 900 C °). The thermal conductivity of mixed heaters is from 0.2 W / (m * K). Most of these materials are non-waterproof, have high water absorption and open porosity, so such thermal insulation requires additional waterproofing.The most famous materials from this group are volcanite and sovelite. When using asbestos-containing materials for thermal insulation, sanitary standards should be strictly observed, since their use is associated with the release of asbestos dust harmful to human health.

Reflective insulation

Reflective or reflective insulation is based on the fact that almost every material, including those used in construction, has thermal stability. This means that it cannot stop the movement of thermal energy, but only slows it down, absorbing and then giving (radiating) heat.

Reflective insulation
Reflective insulation

Significant heat loss is due to the transmission of infrared radiation, which is not an obstacle to traditional thermal insulation materials with low thermal conductivity. However, some materials behave somewhat differently, they do not absorb, but reflect from themselves almost all (97-99%) heat that reaches their surface. These materials include gold, silver, pure polished aluminum. If we supplement such a material with a thermal barrier, which is used today as a polyethylene film, then we will get an effective thermal insulation material that can also be used as a vapor barrier. Thus, reflective thermal insulation materials are ideal for insulating baths, saunas and the like.

Modern reflective insulation is a multi-layer material consisting of one or two layers of polished aluminum and a layer of polyethylene foam. There is a wide range of such materials from different manufacturers on the market of thermal insulation materials. These insulation materials are very thin. A layer of reflective insulation with a thickness of 10 to 25 mm is equivalent to a layer of insulation made of fibrous materials with a thickness of 100-270 mm. Among the most popular reflective thermal insulation materials today are Penofol, Porileks, Ekofol, Armofol.

As you can see, the insulation materials used in modern construction are more than varied. Many of them are used to solve complex problems. Therefore, when choosing insulation or waterproofing for your home, it is advisable to focus, if possible, on those materials that will simultaneously help you provide protection from noise, wind and various harmful influences.

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