Table of contents:
- Benefits of profiled timber
- Disadvantages of profiled beams
Glued laminated timber
- Advantages of laminated veneer lumber
- Disadvantages of laminated veneer lumber
- Rounded log: "for"
- Rounded log: "against"
Now there is neither fir nor home. In their place, a five-story concrete box has long been grown, the residents of which constantly complain about damp, cold walls, echoing entrances and cracks in the ceilings. Well, yes, a bad house turned out, there are much better and more comfortable buildings made of the same reinforced concrete blocks or bricks. But none of them can compare with a wooden house. We have already forgotten what it is, but our body remembers, joyfully responding with good health and high spirits to our visit to a house built of wood. To dream, or what? Or it is better to talk to the point, because who knows if tomorrow you will have to decide what to build a house from. Of wood, of course! But which one? A tree is too general a concept. And you can build a house from laminated veneer lumber or galvanized logs. Maybe,Do you consider a profiled bar as the best option? Each of these options has its own characteristics, more or less significant. What to give preference to?
Very often today profiled timber is used for the construction of wooden houses, which is a high-tech and easy-to-use natural building material. Profiled beams are made, as a rule, from softwood by planing or milling. The bar can be given different shapes. Often, the outer side of a profiled bar has a convex surface, and the inner, “house-facing” side is flat.
However, the beam can be flat or convex on both sides. The upper and lower sides of the timber are mirrored in the form of a thorn and a groove. Structures made of profiled beams, and these can be residential houses, baths, and gazebos, look neat and beautiful immediately after construction - they do not require additional external finishing, the surface of the profiled beam is planed to a hollow smoothness (according to the first class of cleanliness). Such a bar is dried in natural conditions.
Benefits of profiled timber
- Profiled timber is a solid material, one hundred percent wood, which does not contain any chemical or synthetic additives. A house made of profiled timber breathes, the natural structure of the tree in it is not disturbed. Thanks to this, the optimal level of humidity is naturally maintained in the house and air exchange takes place.
- A house built from such a bar has a finished look immediately, it does not require additional external finishing in the form of cladding or cladding. Such a house looks neat, as if we were pulling from a picture.
- Due to the perfect fit of the beams of adjacent crowns to each other, good thermal insulation is achieved - such a house is not blown by the wind, and rain and melt water does not get into the grooves between the beams, which excludes the occurrence of foci of decay.
- Building a house from a profiled bar is quite economical. This building material in itself is much cheaper, for example, glued beams - roughly the cost of profiled beams is two times lower than the cost of glued beams. At the same time, houses made of this building material are very warm.
- The most complex angular structures can be ordered at the factory, which greatly facilitates installation work.
- The profiled bar gives a minimum shrinkage to the operational humidity, which, in accordance with GOST, is 14-16% for the bar. Shrinkage of pine and cedar beams is about 3.5%, and of larch - 4.5%. Moreover, after the building has shrunk, in this case, additional caulking of the joints between the beams is not required, as in the case of building a house from a rounded log. Jute is laid in grooves during the construction of walls and no other insulation is required.
Disadvantages of profiled beams
There are few disadvantages of non-profiled timber. Perhaps, among the significant disadvantages, only two should be noted.
- The final finishing of the house is possible only after the timber from which the house is built has acquired the required relative humidity.
- As the material dries, cracks may appear in the timber. Their size and number depend, first of all, on the air temperature at the time when the house was being built. The lower the temperature, the less cracks will appear and the smaller they will be. Also, the number and size of cracks is influenced by such a factor as the cross-section of the timber. Due to internal stresses that arise due to different degrees of shrinkage in different sections, cracks appear on the side with a large area. In the event that a square beam is used, cracks are formed on all sides. However, the process of cracking on the timber can be, to some extent, taken under control - there is a special technology by which preliminary cuts are applied to the timber, allowing you to set the crack line.
Although profiled timber is not the cheapest option for the construction of a wooden house, it is considered the most rational, judging by the price ratio, the complexity of the construction of the building and its performance.
Glued laminated timber
In the manufacture of laminated veneer lumber, logs are sawn into boards or, in other words, lamellas. Sawing dimensions can be different, for example, 52 × 205 × 6150 mm or 52 × 155 × 6150. It depends both on the technological process and on the planned shape and size of the timber. The prepared lamellas are dried in special chambers until the degree of residual moisture is reached, which is 10-12%.
Dried lamellas, treated with antiseptics and fire retardants, connected in a special way - on a microthorn, shredded and glued into beams. Moreover, the lamellas in the finished timber can be located both vertically and horizontally. The number of lamellas can be from two to five pieces. The maximum thickness of the finished timber is 250 mm. The finished laminated veneer lumber can have either a natural profile or obtained by milling a beam.
There are several types of laminated veneer lumber. It can be a wall beam, which is actually used for the construction of residential buildings, a window beam and load-bearing beams.
Advantages of laminated veneer lumber
- Houses made of laminated veneer lumber are very beautiful, they require almost no external finishing. This is due to the highest quality of the front side of the timber. The boards used for the front surface are made of high-quality wood, all knots and other defects are removed from them, the blanks for the timber are carefully selected in color and texture, therefore, the structure of such material has an almost flawless appearance.
- Glued laminated timber retains its shape and size during operation. Due to the fact that already pre-dried boards are used for its manufacture, and in the finished timber there are no internal stresses characteristic of solid wood, glued laminated timber does not give significant shrinkage, does not crack, does not bend or twist.
- Glued timber has significant strength. This indicator for laminated veneer lumber exceeds that for solid wood by 50-70%. This is partly due to the fact that in the manufacture of laminated veneer lumber, the opposite direction of wood fibers in the lamellas is set. The same factor excludes the deformation of the timber when the humidity changes - the glued timber “does not lead”.
- The construction of a house from laminated veneer lumber is fast enough. Installation of walls is carried out in a short time due to the fact that all parts are manufactured in the factory and fit each other as accurately as possible. Installation of laminated veneer lumber walls takes 5-6 weeks. Moreover, it can be carried out almost at any time of the year. In addition, the shrinkage of a finished building made of laminated veneer lumber is about 1%. And this means that after the construction of the house, there is no need to wait for shrinkage, which in the case of using solid wood can reach 7%, and you can immediately start installing windows, doorways and decorative elements.
- Buildings made of laminated veneer lumber are less susceptible to pathogenic microflora and pests, are more fire-resistant and durable.
Disadvantages of laminated veneer lumber
- One of the most significant disadvantages of laminated veneer lumber as a building material is its high cost. A rather complicated technological process of manufacturing glued beams also determines its price - the cost of buildings made of glued beams can exceed the cost of building a house from a solid bar by 2-3 times.
- The second drawback is, of course, the lower environmental friendliness of buildings made of laminated veneer lumber. Although manufacturers declare that when gluing lamellas, a special adhesive is used, which allows the tree to "breathe", nevertheless, glued timber is no longer an absolutely natural material.
And yet, the totality of the performance of houses made of laminated veneer lumber makes the popularity of this material well deserved and justified. It is not for nothing that today glued laminated timber is used more and more often in cottage construction.
The most traditional material used for the construction of wooden houses for a very long time is logs. For centuries, wooden houses have been built from chopped logs - the so-called log cabins. Judging by the illustrations in children's books, the huts on chicken legs in fairy tales were built exclusively from this material. However, if such a hut were built today, it is likely that rounded logs (OCB) would be used in its construction. This is the same log, only processed on special equipment to achieve the same diameter along the entire length and give it the desired profile.
A rounded log is made from ordinary sawing logs, previously sorted by the diameter of the top part. The workpiece diameter must exceed the final diameter by 20 mm. The diameter of the finished log can be different. A log with a diameter of up to 24 mm is used for the construction of baths, summer cottages, guest houses. Thicker logs, the diameter of which can reach 380 mm, are used in the construction of residential buildings and cottages. After the log is processed on a special machine, it is cut with circular or chain saws into elements of the future structure. A special corner joint, the so-called "bowl", is made on a special cup-cutting machine. If the production of rounded logs is carried out in the warm season, then each log is treated with an antiseptic,this prevents contamination of fresh wood with microorganisms.
In modern conditions, rounded logs are manufactured with the highest precision. After processing, the profile of the log can be given any shape. Each log has a special groove, which allows you to connect the logs with the highest possible accuracy and tightness. Rounded logs can be of two types:
- Natural moisture - dry gradually in natural conditions.
- Dry logs are dried in special ovens.
Rounded log: "for"
- A rounded log retains all the advantages of natural wood: low thermal conductivity, healthy energy, the ability to provide natural air exchange.
- The same diameter of the logs and their precise processing allow the logs to be adjusted very precisely to each other, which improves the thermal insulation properties of this material and excludes blowing through the walls of the house.
- Buildings made of rounded logs look very beautiful - this is the traditional appearance of a wooden house, from which it breathes with something familiar and very well known to us from childhood.
Rounded log: "against"
However, today OCB is often inferior to other wood wall materials due to its shortcomings.
- A very noticeable drawback of this type of building materials is associated with the moisture content of the tree. If the logs are dried in special ovens, it is extremely important to follow all the technology. Otherwise, the wood will crack and deform. Logs of natural moisture shrink significantly. In this case, the shrinkage of the lower floor of the building can be 10-15 cm.For dry OCB, this indicator is slightly less - 6-8 cm.
- After shrinkage, in any case, additional caulking will be required, however, in the case of using dry logs, this is required to a lesser extent.
- In the process of shrinkage and final shrinkage of the logs, cracks can also form, into which external moisture then penetrates, thereby creating pockets of decay.
- Even the "settled" structure will continue to shrink, therefore, when decorating a house, this nuance should be taken into account and appropriate technologies and materials should be selected.
- A house built from OCB or chopped logs is perhaps the most fire hazardous option. It is imperative to process the material with fire retardants. But the state of the heating system and electrical wiring should also be given the utmost attention.
- Weak resistance of wood to aggressive environmental influences causes rather high costs for maintaining the exterior of the house in proper condition. For example, even logs covered with special glaze antiseptic compounds acquire a gray color over time.
All this is very brief about what it is possible to build a wooden house from today. As you can see, there are enough options. It is only necessary to carefully weigh the pros and cons when choosing a material for building a house. One thing is certain: a wooden house is ideal for life, the atmosphere of such a house is incredibly human-friendly. Whatever you choose, be it solid or glued beams, rounded or even chopped logs, you choose a harmonious environment for yourself and your family. This is the main plus.