Warming A Country House: How To Ensure Comfort

Table of contents:

Warming A Country House: How To Ensure Comfort
Warming A Country House: How To Ensure Comfort
Anonim
  • House wall insulation

    • Internal thermal insulation
    • External thermal insulation

      • Multilayer structures
      • Wet facades
  • Basement, basement and floor insulation
  • Roof insulation
  • Final touches
Thermal insulation of house walls
Thermal insulation of house walls

Thermal insulation of a house is an issue that requires an integrated approach. Ideally, you should think about this even at the stage of designing your future home. In this case, it is possible to properly calculate the thickness of the walls, plan multi-layer masonry, initially use materials with low thermal conductivity, and so on. However, during the operation of the house, it is also not too late to think about insulation. In order for the house to be really warm, you should take care of the thermal insulation of the entire structure from the foundation to the roof.

So, solving the problem of warming a country house, the owner needs to solve the issue of thermal insulation:

  • basement and basement
  • floor and attic floor
  • walls
  • roofs

At the same time, getting off with one thermal insulation material for the whole house will not work. Insulation materials used in different areas should have different characteristics. Therefore, let's talk in more detail about the individual stages of warming a country house.

House wall insulation

Walls are the largest surface area of ​​a building through which heat can escape. According to some estimates, a properly selected insulation and competent installation of thermal insulation will save up to 45% of the heat in the room. Agree, this is a considerable savings. When planning the implementation of work on the insulation of a house, first of all, it is necessary to determine how the walls will be insulated - whether it will be external or internal insulation.

Internal thermal insulation

Installation of a thermal insulation layer on the inner surface of the walls allows you to keep the architecture of the building unchanged. In addition, in this case, insulation work can be carried out at any time of the year. However, this, perhaps, limits the advantages of this type of installation of thermal insulation. But the list of its shortcomings looks more impressive. Firstly, due to the insulation, the useful area of ​​the room is reduced. Secondly, the load-bearing wall in this case is located outside the heat-insulating layer, so in winter it freezes, which not only badly affects its durability, but also contributes to the formation of condensation on the insulation layer, therefore, it is required to provide vapor barrier between the insulation and the interior finishing material. But at the same time, the appearance of mold and fungi on the insulation itself and the outer wall is not excluded. Generally,in this case, the heat storage capacity of the outer wall is completely unused. Finally, the internal insulation of walls often makes it impossible to prevent the occurrence of so-called cold bridges at the junction of walls with horizontal ceilings. Premises, the walls of which have an internal heat-insulating layer, heat up rather quickly, but also cool down faster.

Internal thermal insulation
Internal thermal insulation

Having decided to still perform the internal thermal insulation of the premises, you should use materials that minimize the disadvantages of this method of insulation. Among the most promising solutions to this problem can be called sprayed polyurethane foam. Also used for these purposes are materials such as polystyrene foam, fiberboard, mineral wool, chipboard and even felt. As an option, you should also consider a special thermal insulation plaster.

External thermal insulation

External insulation of facades looks more attractive from the point of view of the further operation of the building. And there are several options:

  • insulation according to the "sandwich" principle
  • external insulation "wet"
  • ventilated facades

Multilayer structures

Thermal insulation of the "sandwich" type assumes the presence of three layers: the actual enclosing structure, a layer of heat-insulating material and an outer layer consisting of blocks, brickwork or other facing material. Often, the outer layer is also covered with decorative facade plaster, which not only gives a finished, elegant look to the building, but also improves the durability and operational characteristics of the facade, and also improves, in addition to thermal insulation qualities, the sound insulation of the house. Mineral or basalt wool, polystyrene foam, expanded polystyrene can be used as a heater in such systems.

Wet facades

Thermal insulation of the "wet" type with thin plaster also implies several layers: a layer of mineral wool or expanded polystyrene, a reinforcing layer consisting of an adhesive and fiberglass mesh, a base and finishing layer of plaster. Insulation used in "wet" facades must have increased peel strength. The facade system with thick plaster differs slightly from the one described above. If a denser insulation should be used under a thin plaster (for example, the desired density of mineral wool is 140 kg / 3, and expanded polystyrene is 15-25 kg / m 3), then in a system with thick plaster, mineral wool or glass wool with a density of 30-100 can be used kg / m 3… In this case, the insulation is applied to special anchors, closed with a welded stainless steel mesh, and then covered with a thick layer of plaster. Among the most popular heaters on the market today are Penofol, Rockwool, Isover, Penoplex.

Wet facades
Wet facades

For wall insulation, as a rule, plate, roll or sprayed heat-insulating materials are used. But bulk insulation, despite their good heat and sound insulation qualities, is undesirable to use for wall insulation - over time, granules or sand settle, thicken and can even burst the walls of the structure. Although, nevertheless, such materials are quite often used in frame houses. In this case, a few years after the house was put into operation, it is necessary to fill up the granules, having previously tamped the existing material. This is usually not difficult to do from the attic. If this procedure is not carried out, the voids formed in the thermal insulation layer will significantly reduce the thermal insulation qualities of the enclosing structures.

Basement, basement and floor insulation

But bulk materials are ideal for thermal insulation of basement floors. Here, such a property of granular heat-insulating materials as high hydrophobicity will come in handy. The basement, just like the walls, can be insulated both outside and inside. Insulation slabs can be attached directly to the surface of the base using various adhesives or mastics. Thermal insulation materials used for warming basements, in addition to low thermal conductivity, must have special compressive strength and resistance to moisture. Not only the temperature in the house depends on the quality of the basement insulation, but also the durability of the entire building, because the basement or basement insulation implies protection from ground and melt water, as well as from soil freezing. Accordingly, isolation is needed everywherewhere the basement and subfloor elements are in contact with the ground. The best option is a continuous external basement insulation. Extruded polystyrene foam is excellent for these purposes.

Warm floors in the house
Warm floors in the house

Thermal insulation of the floor is a task no less important than the insulation of the foundation, basement or facade. Up to 20% of the heat can escape through an uninsulated floor. Even if the house has underfloor heating, an insulating layer is absolutely necessary. In its absence, the energy spent on floor heating will be spent absolutely irrationally. At the same time, insulation is required both for the floor on the ground and for the overlap above the unheated basement. The requirements for floor insulation are, in principle, obvious:

  • high compressive strength as the floor is very heavily loaded
  • durability
  • minimal moisture absorption (therefore, fibrous insulation is not used for thermal insulation - this parameter is quite high for them)
  • fire safety.

For floor insulation, foam plastics, extruded polystyrene foam, mineral insulation, various bulk thermal insulation materials can be used. When insulating the ceiling above the basement, one should not forget about the attic floor - it is also advisable to insulate it.

Roof insulation

Finally, the roof of a country house must also be properly insulated, because about 10% of the heat can go through the roof. Its design is of great importance here. Pitched roofs, under which there is an attic or attic, are a source of heat loss to a lesser extent than flat ones. And it's easier to insulate a pitched roof. Of course, the heat-insulating material for a pitched roof should be as durable as possible, strong and, of course, fireproof. In addition, it is important that it does not shrink - otherwise there is a possibility of a "cold bridge" forming under the ridge of the roof.

Most often, fiberglass plates or mats are used for thermal insulation of pitched roofs. This material fully meets all the requirements put forward in this case for insulation.

House roof insulation
House roof insulation

Higher requirements are put forward for insulation of flat roofs. The heat-insulating material here protects against temperature changes that lead to the appearance of cracks that support the floor. Talking about low moisture absorption and material strength, in principle, is even redundant. And again, extruded polystyrene foam can be used for these purposes. The only thing, when equipping a heat-insulating layer of a flat roof, should not forget about vapor barrier. It will avoid the accumulation of condensation in the thermal insulation layer, as well as swelling of the roof carpet.

Final touches

When the insulation of the largest areas through which heat loss occurs is finished, you should think about the little things. Although it is not entirely true to call it trifles. Take the windows. No matter how powerful the insulation of walls, roof and floor is done in your house, if the window frames are installed incorrectly, the frames are dry and do not close tightly, there will be no heat in the house.

If the country house has stove heating, the chimney must also be insulated. Otherwise, you will heat the street. In addition, the correct thermal insulation of the chimney will avoid intensive condensation and flue overgrowth. To insulate the chimney, you can use exclusively fire-resistant materials, such as asbestos-cement sheets or mineral wool. Plaster and brickwork are also used for this.

This is only in general terms about what you should pay attention to when insulating a country house. Today on the market there is a huge amount of all kinds of thermal insulation materials. In order not to be mistaken in choosing one or another insulation, you should accurately determine the area on which it will be used, take into account the structural features of the building, and also familiarize yourself in detail with the characteristics of the material itself. And if everything is done correctly, no frosts and winds will scare you - your house will reliably keep warm and cozy.

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