Roofing Materials: The Question Of The Right Choice

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Roofing Materials: The Question Of The Right Choice
Roofing Materials: The Question Of The Right Choice

Video: Roofing Materials: The Question Of The Right Choice

Отличия серверных жестких дисков от десктопных
Video: Comparing Roofing Materials | Ask This Old House 2023, February
  • Mastic roofs
  • Roll roofing materials
  • Sheet roof
  • Piece roofing materials

Contents: Mastic roofs | Roll roofing materials | Sheet roofing | Piece roofing materials

Roofing materials
Roofing materials

Dear readers, frankly speaking, it took my breath away! The city spread out under our feet looked completely different. The roofs of his buildings - pointed and flat, red, green, brown and black, metal and tiled, seemingly velvety, or smooth, shining in the sun with a steel shine - completely transformed the appearance of the city, many of whose buildings seemed the same from below.

A lot has already been said about roofs. And it is not surprising, because it is difficult to overestimate the importance of this particular building element. You can put up expensive walls, decorate them with the latest building technologies, invest a fortune in interior decoration, but if you've made a mistake with the roof, all this may be completely in vain. Due to insufficient quality, ill-conceived, unsuitable roofing style, not only the appearance of the building will suffer, but also its integrity and durability.

There are a huge amount of roofing materials available on the modern construction market today. Information about various types of roofing is also full of the Internet, but this does not make the choice easier, on the contrary, you can get bogged down in endless advertising articles for a long time and never find an answer to your questions. Bearing in mind that time is money, and everything is learned in comparison, we will try to clarify a little the issue with the choice of roofing material. To do this, the article summarizes information about the most common roofing materials and gives their comparative characteristics.

In order to make the right choice, you need to know the parameters of roofing materials, the features of their operation, and the scope. Conventionally, all roofs can be divided into two large groups: those used in urban construction and intended, first of all, for the construction of summer cottages and cottages. Naturally, this division is very arbitrary, but it is based on performance, installation features, technical parameters, so it should still be taken into account.

Roofs can be differentiated in more detail based on size, properties and appearance. Based on these indicators, all roofing materials can be divided into four groups.

Type of roofing material Roofing materials Mastic roof Polymer compositions Roll roofing materials Glassine Roofing material Tol Bitumen-polymer materials Sheet roof Asbestos cement sheets Steel roof Bituminous cardboard corrugated sheets Metal tile Piece roofing materials Natural roof tiles Cement-sand tile Metal roof tiles Natural slate

Mastic roofs

Consider the most common roofing materials used in modern construction. And we'll start with mastic roofs. They are also called bulk polymer roofs. Such roofs are used mainly on flat roofs, but in the presence of reinforcement, pitched mastic roofs with a slope of no more than 25% can be arranged.

Mastic roofs
Mastic roofs

Bitumen, polymer, bitumen-polymer mastics, bitumen emulsions and bitumen-emulsion mastics based on solid emulsifiers are used for the installation of bulk roofs. Although mastic roofs are considered one of the cheapest options, their installation is not so simple. For applying mastics, special spray guns are used. The preparation of the base is of great importance for the quality of the roof. It is important to achieve the same thickness of the polymer coating, which is applied in several stages.

The main advantage of bulk roofs is their seamlessness, which guarantees complete waterproofing. In addition, it should be noted that mastic roofs have high frost resistance, resistance to weathering and aggressive environments, they have good sound and heat insulation properties. The disadvantages of this type of roofs include the complexity of their design, a certain exactingness to the operating conditions, not too long service life - about 18 years. There are a huge number of different compositions on the market for the installation of a self-leveling roof, which should be selected based on the specific operating conditions, roof structure, type of building, appearance.

Roll roofing materials

Roll materials for roofing are of two types: baseless and basic. Baseless rolled roofing materials are panels with a certain thickness, obtained by rolling mixtures, which consist of many ingredients. In the composition of base materials there is an organic binder - most often bitumen is used for these purposes, filler is crushed rubber or mineral powder, various additives that improve the performance of the material - plasticizers, antiseptics.

The main roll materials are made by applying to the base, which is roofing board, asbestos paper or glass cloth, bitumen, tar or various mixtures based on these substances.

The most important quality parameters of roll roofing materials are flexibility, heat resistance and tensile strength. High requirements for these qualities are due to the need to provide the roof with absolute waterproofness, which is possible only in the absence of cracks and ruptures of the roofing material. The most common roll roofing materials today are asphalt roofing felt and roofing felt. The popularity of these materials is explained not by their high quality, but by the relative cheapness and ease of manufacture and installation.

However, roofing material, roofing felt, and glassine have very serious drawbacks, the main of which is their short service life - only five to seven years. The reasons for such a short service life are the low strength and biostability of the cardboard used for the base in these materials, as well as the low frost resistance and heat resistance of bitumen used as a binder.

To improve the quality of roll roofing materials, various polymer additives are introduced into bitumen. The resulting roll materials have a wider operating temperature range, which increases the durability of the coating. Modification of the bitumen binder with various rubbers increases the elasticity of the roofing material, and the introduction of plastic into its composition increases the heat resistance. However, modification of the binder is not sufficient to significantly improve the overall quality of the material - the base material is also of great importance.

The special roofing cardboard used as a base for roofing felts, roofing felt and glassine does not have a sufficiently high strength and durability, moreover, it excessively absorbs moisture and swells. In modern bitumen-polymer roll materials, fiberglass, fiberglass or polyester are used as a base. Fiberglass is somewhat stronger than cardboard, but this material is also prone to tearing. An even stronger material is fiberglass. Polyester also has a fairly high strength, moreover, good elongation should be attributed to the advantages of this material.

Since we are talking about roll roofing materials, one cannot fail to mention such a modern baseless roll material used for roofing as polymer membranes.

Polymer membranes
Polymer membranes

This is a new generation material that is significantly ahead of traditional roofing roll materials in quality and operational capabilities: the service life of a polymer membrane roof can be a quarter of a century. PVC membranes are of the highest strength and excellent elasticity. In addition, the membranes provide perfect waterproofing and at the same time vapor permeability. Finally, such roofs are quite economical - if, in order to ensure complete waterproofing of the roof using conventional roll roofing materials, they have to be laid in several layers, then membrane roofs are made single-layer.

While the traditional roll materials mentioned above are used only for flat roofs and roofs with a slight slope, polymer membranes can be used on roofs with any slope without the risk of slipping. Single-layer polymer membranes can have a self-adhesive layer. If there is none, then the membrane roof is fused or welded, which allows for complete sealing.

Sheet roof

Sheet roofing materials are quite popular in Russia. In the West, they are not so widespread, and in our country, the tradition of sheet roofing goes back more than one century. This group of roofing materials includes both expensive, but extremely high-quality and durable copper roofs, and cheap slate coatings, ubiquitous in the Soviet period in our country. Such different materials belong to the same group because of their size. Sheet roofing does not require frequent lathing, and its use is most justified on roofs of a simple structure. The use of sheet materials on complex roofs is possible, however, the amount of material waste in this case significantly exceeds the norm, which significantly increases the cost of the coating.

Let's start our conversation about sheet roofing materials with asbestos-cement sheets. These sheets are known to all of us - until recently, most houses with a sloping roof were covered with these gray wavy plates. The common name for such plates - slate - is not entirely correct. Slate is a German word for another roofing material - natural slate, which we will also talk about in this article. In the meantime, a few words about slate in the usual sense of the word. In recent years, the popularity of asbestos-cement roofing has dropped. This is due to its insufficient environmental friendliness, more precisely, the environmental friendliness of asbestos, which is part of the slate. In Europe, this material is even banned for use. However, the harmfulness of asbestos-cement roofs still remains in question. It is believed that it is greatly exaggerated.The following arguments are given as counterarguments.

  • The asbestos content in slate is negligible.
  • The layer of asbestos-cement sheets is the outermost roofing layer. A person does not come into direct contact with asbestos cement during the operation of such a roof; moreover, several layers of roofing carpet are located under the asbestos-cement sheets, which provides additional protection.
  • Modern asbestos-cement sheets are covered with various coloring compositions, which has a positive effect not only on their performance, but also on the environmental friendliness of the roofing material.

However, no one denies the carcinogenic properties of asbestos, and you should remember about them when making your choice in favor of one or another roofing material. It should be noted here that sheet materials similar to slate, but not containing asbestos, have appeared on the market. They have replaced it with another fibrous material, similar to that used in the production of false ceiling tiles. For example, such a sheet roofing material is produced by the ETERNIT company, but its price is still quite high, and it has not yet received wide distribution in our market.

Leaving open the question of the environmental friendliness and harmlessness to humans of asbestos-cement roofing, one should, nevertheless, talk about the advantages of this material. These include:

  • durability (up to 30 years)
  • incombustibility
  • resistance to corrosion, solar radiation, temperature and humidity changes, acid attack
  • good heat and sound insulation qualities
  • vapor permeability
  • low cost
  • ease of processing and installation.

For completeness, let's talk about some of the disadvantages of slate roofing. With age, asbestos-cement sheets lose their waterproof properties, the outer edge of such sheets can crumble and break off. In addition, mosses and lichens can feel at ease on the shaded areas of slate roofs. Repair of a slate roof involves a partial or even complete replacement of the coating.

Asbestos cement slabs
Asbestos cement slabs

There are flat and corrugated asbestos-cement sheets on the roofing market. The second option has greater strength due to the cross-section of the corrugated sheet. Corrugated asbestos-cement sheets can be of two types:

  • ordinary, having an area of ​​1200x686 mm, a thickness of 5.5 mm and a weight of 8.5 kg
  • reinforced, the area of ​​which is 1000x2800mm, thickness - 8 mm, and wave height - 50 mm

Standard flat asbestos-cement sheets on the market can be 1200, 2500, 3200, 3600 mm long, 800, 1200, 1500 mm wide and 4, 5, 8, 10, 12 mm thick.

Metal roofs have long proven themselves from the very best side due to their durability and performance. Copper, steel, zinc, and aluminum are used for roofing. Metal roofing materials can be presented in the form of rolls, flat or profiled sheets.

Metal roofs
Metal roofs

Profiled sheets are most often made of aluminum or galvanized steel. The profile (wave) provides the roofing material with additional rigidity, facilitates installation (such sheets are overlapped) and add decorative effect. It should be noted right away that metal roofs have one common drawback - the ability to accumulate static electricity. Therefore, in whatever form the metal is used to cover the roof, a lightning conductor is mandatory.

Copper is a recognized aristocrat among roofing materials. This metal has been used to cover roofs for centuries, and until now it has not lost its relevance. Yes, copper roofs are one of the most expensive, but given the durability of this material, and the service life of a copper roof can be up to a hundred years or more, the high price of such a roof pays off. Copper is non-corrosive, completely harmless and very, well, just incredibly beautiful! Moreover, with age, copper becomes even more beautiful, becoming covered with a noble patina - over time, this metal darkens and acquires a beautiful bluish-green hue. It looks so amazing that technologies have been developed and become in demand to prematurely "age" copper. Finally, a copper roof is virtually maintenance-free. In this way,the high price is perhaps the only drawback of copper as a roofing material. Roofing copper is produced in the form of rolls, the sheet width of which is 600-700 mm, and the thickness is 0.6-0.8 mm.

Roofing steel is much more democratic than copper. Since it was invented at the end of the 19th century, roof steel has consistently enjoyed a fairly high popularity. Today this material is available in two types - galvanized and black steel, that is, uncoated. The service life of galvanized roofing steel is 25-30 years, black steel, provided it is used correctly, will last 5-10 years less. Standard roofing steel sheets have an area of ​​1.25x2.5m and a thickness of 0.5-1.5mm.

Used for roofs and other metals. Zinc in its pure form is not used as a roofing material, but in an alloy with a small amount of copper and titanium, which give zinc greater ductility in the cold state, it gives an excellent result. The service life of such roofing can be up to 100 years. The most popular on the market are zinc roofing sheets manufactured by Union Zinc. Zinc can be presented both in rolls and in the form of sheets, the thickness of which is 0.2-1 mm.

Aluminum for roofing has been used not so long ago. Today, aluminum slate is gaining popularity. The main advantages of this material are light weight and resistance to corrosion. In addition, it is quite simple to mount aluminum roofs, the service life of such a roof is about 75 years, which is quite a lot. Aluminum slate is produced in the form of sheets 1000-2000mm wide and 0.6-0.8mm thick.

The metal tile is the same profiled corrugated sheets, only imitating the look of natural tiles. A metal tile is made from a sheet of aluminum or roofing steel with a thickness of 0.4-0.6 mm, covered with a layer of zinc or an aluminum-zinc alloy. Both sides of the sheet metal are treated with a primer anti-corrosion compound. The front side is painted with special dyes with polymer additives, which allow imitating the color of natural tiles. Finally, the outer layer of the metal tile coating consists of a special protective varnish.

Metal tile
Metal tile

There is a fairly large selection of different types of this roofing material, differing in shape, wave height, shade. Its appearance and performance are largely determined by the quality of the polymer coating. Currently, the following materials are used in the manufacture of metal tiles:

  • polyester
  • matt polyester
  • plastisol
  • pural
  • PVDF.

For clarity, we present the characteristics of these materials in the form of a table.

Specifications Polyester Matt polyester Plastisol Pural PVDF Surface type Smooth Smooth Embossing Smooth Smooth Coating base Polyester paint Polyester paint Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) Polyurethane Polyvinyl fluoride (80%)

Acrylic (20%)

Total coating thickness, microns 25 35 200 50 27 Priming layer thickness, microns 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 The thickness of the protective varnish layer on the back side of the sheet, microns 12-15 12-15 12-15 12-15 12-15 Maximum allowable operating temperature, ° С 120 120 60-80 120 120 Minimum temperature at which processing is possible, ° С -ten -ten +10 -fifteen -ten Color fastness (on a 5-point scale) 4 4 3 4 4 Mechanical stability (on a 5-point scale) 3 3 five 4 4 Corrosion resistance (on a 5-point scale) 3 4 five five 4 Resistance to weathering (on a 5-point scale) 3 4 2 4 five Additional characteristic Suitable for all climatic zones, has good flexibility and formability. Suitable for all climatic zones Low resistance to UV rays. For regions with hot climates, you should choose light-colored metal tiles - they heat up less, fade and reflect light better Resistant to temperature changes, less susceptible to scratches than polyester, but less resistant to plastic deformation, less bending. The most resistant to ultraviolet light, has the highest durability, can be used even in an aggressive environment, resistant to salts and acids, does not absorb pollution and is capable of self-cleaning

The use of metal tiles is possible on roofs with a slope of 14 °. Among the advantages of this roofing material should be mentioned:

  • light weight
  • durability (the service life of metal roofing is 50 years)
  • ease of installation and the presence in the delivery set, as a rule, of all the necessary components
  • excellent aesthetic qualities and varied appearance
  • fairly reasonable cost
  • environmental friendliness.

The disadvantages inherent in metal tiles are few. These are susceptibility to corrosion in places of damage to the polymer coating, high consumption of material on roofs of complex structures, as well as increased noise during rain or hail. However, in most cases, the described disadvantages can be avoided by choosing metal tiles from trusted manufacturers and paying sufficient attention to the quality of the purchased material. The noise of metal tiles can be minimized due to the correct installation of the roof. Today, metal tiles from both domestic and foreign manufacturers are available on the market. Among the manufacturers, mention should be made of such companies as Ranilla (Finland), Weckmann (Finland), Mera System (Sweden), Takotta (Finland), Poimukate OY (Finland).Domestic manufacturers also present their products on the building materials market. Here we can mention such companies as Interprofil, Metal Profile.

Bituminous-cardboard corrugated sheets are made of pressed cardboard, which is impregnated with bitumen under the influence of high temperatures and pressure, and then painted using a special technology or treated with polymer coatings. On the front side, bitumen-cardboard sheets are covered with a special colored layer based on thermoactive polymers and lightfast pigments. Such a coating performs both a protective and a decorative function. Bituminous cardboard sheets can be painted in one or two layers. The latter have a richer color and are more durable.

Bitumen-cardboard sheets are presented on the market under different names: Aqualin, Ondulin, Euroslate, etc. The advantages of bitumen-cardboard sheets are as follows:

  • light weight - Euro slate is much lighter than steel and asbestos-cement sheets. This is perhaps the lightest roofing material
  • good flexibility
  • good thermal insulation properties
  • ease of installation - a roof made of bitumen-cardboard sheets can be installed even on an old roof, the minimum permissible slope is 6%.

The main disadvantage of bitumen-cardboard sheets is a short service life, such a roof will last about 25-30 years. A roof made of bitumen-cardboard sheets requires a waterproofing layer. Finally, bitumen-cardboard sheets are highly flammable material, which undoubtedly must be taken into account for safety reasons. Standard dimensions of bitumen-cardboard sheets are 2000x940mm, thickness 2.7 ± 0.2 mm. Among the manufacturers of bitumen-cardboard sheets we will mention BITUWELL (Germany), Onduline International (France), Nuline (USA).

Piece roofing materials

The selection of piece roofing materials on the market is more than sufficient. This category includes classic natural tiles, modern soft roofing, and noble, expensive natural slate. All these roofing materials have different characteristics, but they are united by excellent decorative qualities - roofs made of piece materials look exceptionally beautiful and stylish.

Natural ceramic tiles
Natural ceramic tiles

Natural ceramic tiles have perhaps the longest history. The tradition of using ceramic tiles as a roofing material began with the ancient Romans about 2000 years ago. Since then, the technologies and techniques for the production of ceramic tiles have developed and improved, and now we have what we have. And we have a unique, durable, beautiful and absolutely environmentally friendly roofing material.

In the production of ceramic tiles, only natural ingredients are used: sand, clay, brick chips. The appearance of ceramic tiles on the market is very diverse. The traditional color of this material is various shades of brown. However, modern ceramic tiles during production can be painted in other colors, so there are different colors on the market.

The size and shape of ceramic roof tiles can also vary greatly. Tiles are rectangular, trapezoidal, with a round edge. In addition, the tiles can be either flat or wavy. Natural tiles are incredibly beautiful, they give the building an elegant look - a kind of house from the picture. Moreover, the tiles are able to maintain their external attractiveness for a very long time - the service life of a tile roof can exceed 150 years. In addition to decorativeness, environmental friendliness and durability, the tile has other advantages:

  • very good heat and sound insulation qualities, perfectly protects the attic or attic from overheating in summer, allows you to keep warm in winter
  • high resistance to mechanical stress
  • resistance to atmospheric and chemical influences
  • economical installation
  • the ability to use for complex roofs, the minimum roof slope of ceramic tiles from 7%
  • the ability to carry out local repair of the roof, replacing damaged elements without the need to disassemble large areas.

But, unfortunately, there is no ideal in this world, and ceramic tiles are also not without some drawbacks. These include:

  • high weight, ceramic tile roofing equipment often requires reinforcement of the supporting structure; high hardness of ceramic tiles. When installing complex roofs, you have to cut the tiles, while the need to replace the diamond discs, which is used for cutting, arises much more often than when cutting concrete
  • insufficient tightness - the use of ceramic tiles requires a reinforced waterproofing device
  • exposure to bioagents: mosses, lichens, etc. To prevent this trouble, tiles are treated with special compounds that retard the growth of moss or reduce the porosity of the material. By the way, the German manufacturer Erlus launched a self-cleaning ceramic tile Erlus Lotus several years ago. The self-cleaning effect is achieved by applying a special coating to the tiles by firing during the production of a special coating that destroys deposits of fat, dirt, soot, soot, as well as mosses and lichens under the influence of ultraviolet radiation
  • high price. In addition to the fact that the high cost consists of the need to strengthen the supporting structures, provide additional waterproofing, often change consumables, for example, cutting discs, tiles are quite expensive in themselves. Its additional elements are especially expensive: ridge, pediment, ventilation tiles.

Natural tiles are produced by a huge number of companies. Here we note just a few: Koramic (Germany), Tondach (Austria), Nelskamp (Germany), Creaton (Germany), Erlus (Germany).

Cement-sand tile is a decent, but cheaper analogue of ceramic tiles. It is made from cement, quartz sand and dyes. There are much more color solutions for such tiles than ceramic ones. At the same time, cement-sand tiles have almost the same advantages as clay tiles:

  • durability - it is predicted that the service life of cement-sand tiles will exceed 100 years
  • environmental friendliness
  • frost resistance
  • low thermal conductivity
  • good noise absorption
  • corrosion resistance
  • low electrical conductivity.

Cement-sand tiles are one of the heaviest roofing materials, their weight exceeds even the weight of natural tiles. Another disadvantage of this type of tile is its low impact resistance, while it is difficult to process, which complicates the installation of the roof. Many domestic and foreign companies produce cement-sand tiles, for example, Benders (Sweden), BRAAS DSK-1 (Russia).

Metal roof tiles
Metal roof tiles

Metal shingles should not be confused with metal shingles. Another name for this roofing material is composite shingles. It is one of the most advanced multi-layer roofing materials. The base of metal or composite tiles is a profiled steel sheet coated with a special alloy of aluzinc (aluminum, zinc and silicon). Manufacturers claim the special protective properties of such an alloy. The outer side of the metal tile is covered with natural stone granulate and acrylic binder. Composite tiles are characterized by a wide range of colors, which is due to the natural variety of colors of natural stone granules. The acrylic glaze covering the composite shingles provides protection for the unique alloy.

The stone coating gives the metal shingles good resistance to weathering, ultraviolet radiation, bioagents, temperature extremes, etc. Composite shingles are much lighter than natural shingles, this material is fire-resistant, easy to install and durable - the predicted service life is 50 years or more. It is important that a slightly different technology is used in the production of this roofing material than in the production of metal tiles. Composite shingles are first stamped, that is, metal plates of the appropriate shape and size are cut, and only then they are coated.

In the production of metal tiles, a different procedure is used - steel sheets are stamped after the coating has been applied, which often causes microcracks and chips to appear. The standard dimensions of metal tiles are 0.4x1.4 m. The plates of composite tiles are smaller than metal tiles, which allows it to be used on roofs of a rather complex structure without unjustified loss of material. What are the disadvantages of composite tiles? So far, only one is known - the high cost. However, there is hope that someday this promising material for roofing will be offered at a more affordable price, because a great future is predicted for it. A large selection of composite tiles is already available on the market today. The first company that mastered the production of such tiles was Metrotile (Belgium),the products of this company still occupy an important place in the market.

Soft roofing is becoming more and more popular today. This material is also known as shingles or shingles. Flexible tiles are sheets of various shapes: rectangular, oval, with a wavy edge. Soft roof plates consist of several layers. The base layer is a bitumen-impregnated polyester fabric. The face layer is made of mineral granules, which can be of different colors, which determines the color variety of bituminous shingles. There are two types of bituminous shingles: regular and self-adhesive flexible shingles. A lot has already been said about this material, it is well known both to builders and simply to people who are interested in building materials for any reason, for example, private developers. And yet we will touch upon again the main advantages and disadvantages of shingles.

Soft roof
Soft roof

The main advantages of a soft roof are as follows:

  • light weight
  • good sound and heat insulation
  • ease of installation and processing
  • the possibility of laying even on difficult roofs.

Among the disadvantages of shingles, it is worth noting:

  • its flammability
  • low resistance to mechanical stress
  • rather complicated operation and difficult repair
  • poor resistance to aggressive weathering and UV rays
  • poor color fastness
  • insufficient environmental friendliness.

The installation of a soft roof requires continuous lathing, and the minimum permissible slope is 12%.

But all of the above materials are significantly ahead of such a natural roofing material as natural slate or natural slate in all respects. This is truly a royal roof in the literal sense of the word, because slate roofs adorn many European palaces and residences. Natural slate is a natural stone that, due to its special structure, is capable of splitting into thin plates. The color range of natural slate is quite varied, and slate tiles can be of different sizes. This allows you to make very beautiful roofs. In addition to aesthetic appeal, natural slate has other advantages:

  • incredible durability - slate roofs can last more than two centuries, so the durability of a slate roof is determined by the durability of the building itself
  • resistance to harmful influences
  • environmental friendliness
  • high frost resistance
  • low water absorption
  • excellent thermal insulation and sound-absorbing qualities
  • corrosion resistance.

But! And in this case, there are "but" - natural slate is very heavy and requires a thorough strengthening of the supporting structures. In addition, slate can crack due to the drying out of the lathing or shrinkage of the building. In general, slate is a rather fragile material, it is not subject to plastic deformation, therefore, it requires a careful attitude towards itself during installation. Finally, you should be aware that, being a natural material, oil shale can contain various impurities that affect its quality. Slate shingles of category A and category B are presented on the market, the latter is somewhat cheaper, but in quality it is inferior to slate of category A. In general, the price of natural slate roofing is very high, and this is perhaps its main drawback. The main oil shale deposits, from where the bulk of this material comes to the European market,located in Spain and Germany. Among the companies supplying natural slate, we will name several: Rathscheck (Germany), Theis-Boger (Germany), Cupa Pizzaras (Spain).

The review of roofing materials used in modern construction could be continued. We have not touched on such solutions as shingle, sheeted, reed and thatched roofs here. Transparent roofs were also ignored - another interesting, but not yet common option. But since at the beginning of this review we decided to consider the most commonly used roofing materials, let's stop at this. And we'll talk about more exotic roofs another time.

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