Table of contents:
- What is a facade finish for?
Types of facade finishing
Why am I? Moreover, our housing does not start from the front doors, not from the hallway, but much earlier. If you live in an apartment, returning home, you will pass through the entrance anyway. It is good when it is clean and light, and the cold wind does not siphon from its windows. Right? It's the same with an individual house. Well, well, there is no entrance here, in which someone's guests would litter, hooligans break mailboxes, and a neighbor would go out to smoke under your door. And all the same, what do you see when you drive up to the house? Let's not talk about a beautiful and well-maintained yard. We will not even touch upon the architectural forms of your home. Its facade alone is worth a separate discussion. We will talk about this.
It is incorrect to believe that the facade decoration only serves a decorative function. Yes, of course, with the help of facade decoration it is possible to transform the structure beyond recognition, create a certain style, and satisfy the tastes of the home owners. All this is undoubtedly important, because the house should be liked, its exterior, no less than the interior decoration, influences the creation of a certain atmosphere and psychological background in the house. But we must not forget about the practical side of the issue. After all, a correctly chosen facade finish affects the durability of the house, its ability to retain heat, and the level of humidity. Without external decoration, the house seems to be undressed, and it is cold to him, and even a little ashamed to stand like this - without clothes. So what kind of home clothes should you choose? After all, it is important that the "suit fits" …
What is a facade finish for?
Well, everything is very clear with the decorative function of the facade finish - it is needed, unambiguously. And here, as you know, the taste and color … there are many options. But the practical component should be dealt with.
So, what functions does facade decoration perform besides decorating a house? Perhaps the main functions of facade decoration are
- protection of the building from adverse external influences
- waterproofing walls
- thermal protection of the house
Based on these goals, we will consider the main methods of facade decoration used in modern construction. Knowing the quality characteristics of this or that type of facade finish, it will be easier to choose what you like.
But before touching on certain types of facade decoration, let's figure out what exactly are its insulating and protective functions.
Whichever method of facade decoration you choose, it must cope well with adverse external influences. What could it be? These are pollution in the form of dust, soot, soot, and precipitation, and the sun's rays, and the salty wind from the sea. All these factors have a destructive effect on the materials from which the house is built. This means that the facade finish should be especially resistant to such effects. Waterproofing is another important task of facade decoration. Moreover, this parameter has another side. The decoration should protect the facade from external moisture, and if we are talking about the lining of the basement, then we should also provide for such an attack as the capillary rise of ground and melt water. Obviously, the finish must be resistant to moisture and prevent moisture penetration. But at the same time, the facade finish must have good vapor permeability,otherwise, her age will be short. Condensation, which inevitably forms on the inner side of the finishing layer, being unable to evaporate, will destroy not only the facade finish, but also the wall itself. This is especially true for regions with frosty winters. Condensation in such a climate forms intensively, and the smallest droplets of water, penetrating into the structure of the building material and freezing there, contribute to the formation of microcracks, which, in turn, sooner or later leads to its destruction.penetrating into the structure of the building material and freezing there, they contribute to the formation of microcracks, which, in turn, sooner or later leads to its destruction.penetrating into the structure of the building material and freezing there, they contribute to the formation of microcracks, which, in turn, sooner or later leads to its destruction.
Finally, thermal insulation is another serious task, the solution of which is intended to contribute to the finishing of the facade. This parameter is closely related to the previous one. With the wrong ratio of water absorption and vapor permeability, excess moisture, accumulating in the walls, leads not only to their destruction, but also to the loss of heat in the cold season. Thermal insulation of facades is achieved through comprehensive measures. Here, one should take into account both the heat-conducting properties of the finishing materials, and the additional thermal insulation used under the cladding, if any, and the material from which the house is built.
Types of facade finishing
Today there are a fairly large number of different methods of facade decoration. But all of them can be divided into two large groups:
- facade plastering with special compounds
- facing the facade with various finishing materials.
Facade plastering is the most common way of exterior decoration. It is used everywhere on buildings of any type: both in individual construction and construction of cottages, and in the construction of apartment buildings.
One of the main advantages of facade plaster is its relatively low price.
Today, there are many types of facade plasters on the building materials market. We will not dwell on each of them in detail, since this issue has already been considered in detail. Let's touch on only the most important aspects.
|Type of facade plaster||Benefits||disadvantages|
|Mineral cement plaster||
|Mineral silicate plaster||
the most expensive formulations today
In general, considering plaster as a type of facade decoration, one should highlight such advantages as
- high decorativeness
- ease of application
- the ability to use on lightweight enclosing structures
- less technological heterogeneity than when installing curtain facades
- affordable price
The disadvantages of this type of facade finishing include its relative fragility in comparison with most of the facing materials.
Facade cladding is gaining more and more popularity today. This is partly due to the spread of such a method of facade decoration as hinged ventilated facades, which provide excellent thermal insulation with the proper level of air exchange. Another reason for the growing popularity of facade cladding is the vast selection of cladding materials available on the modern construction market. Currently, very different materials are used for cladding buildings:
- a natural stone
- fake diamond
- facade tiles
- facing brick
- profiled sheets
- sheet piling, etc.
Natural stone is undoubtedly the oldest facing material. He is also the most durable. Hardly anyone will argue that a house decorated with natural stone looks respectable, expensive and stylish. And this is by no means an illusion - most likely, no one will decorate a hut on chicken legs with stone. But for modern cottages and spacious individual houses, this material is just right. Among the advantages of this type of cladding, first of all, it is the external attractiveness of natural stone that is called. However, the advantages of this method of facade cladding are not limited to this. It is worth noting also such points as:
- special durability of natural stone. Of course, the service life of such a facing depends on many factors, and primarily on the type of stone, but in any case, it is calculated in tens and even hundreds of years;
- good thermal insulation properties of the stone;
- stone resistance to weathering and aggressive environment;
- environmental friendliness and healthy energy of natural materials. Here, however, one should note the opinion that granite has an increased background radiation. However, most often its danger is exaggerated.
The cladding made of natural stone also has certain disadvantages, the main of which is the large weight of some rocks. For example, granite is considered one of the heaviest building materials. Facing buildings with natural stone is a rather laborious process. Often it requires strengthening the enclosing structures themselves, installing anchors for each stone, using expensive glue, etc.
Therefore, an alternative to natural stone is gaining more and more popularity - artificial stone. This material is not so new - it was invented back in the 19th century, but since then the technology for the production of artificial stone has changed significantly. Today, many types of this finishing material are available on the market, which have different colors, textures and imitate different breeds. The advantages of using artificial stone are as follows:
- this material is lighter than natural stone;
- installation of artificial stone cladding is much easier than the same work using natural stone. Firstly, there are elements on the market that are provided for the design of window openings, corners, gables, which greatly simplifies the entire cladding process. Secondly, artificial material is generally easier to process.
- a large selection of color solutions allows you to implement a variety of design ideas;
- most often the price of an artificial stone is slightly lower than the cost of natural counterparts.
However, despite the rather impressive list of advantages, the artificial stone also has its disadvantages:
- it is not as durable as natural.
- artificial stone is less resistant to mechanical damage, especially to the effects of abrasive materials, therefore, over time, scratches and abrasions may appear on it.
- in places with high humidity, artificial stone requires processing with special hydrophobic compounds, since it is able to absorb moisture.
In general, such a finishing material makes it possible to create a facade cladding that is practically indistinguishable from cladding with natural stone. The external qualities of artificial stone are more than outstanding, its heat and sound insulation properties are also quite high, lower durability is a very relative disadvantage, because in any case, the service life of artificial stone cladding will be more than a dozen years. The resistance of artificial stone to ultraviolet light, temperature extremes, chemicals and fats also makes it a very suitable material for facade cladding. Based on all this, perhaps we can confidently assert that this is, indeed, a worthy alternative to natural materials.
The practice of facing facades with bricks is quite widespread. At first glance, it may seem that this option is boring and uninteresting, but this is by no means the case. Facing bricks are much more diverse than simple building bricks. It has various colors and textures and can imitate the surface of natural stone. The operational properties of facing bricks are due to a special production technology and allow it to be used not only as facade cladding, but also for the actual construction of the enclosing structure. Such a brick is distinguished by its special frost resistance, durability, and the ability to self-cleaning. Separately, it should be noted the good thermal insulation properties of facing bricks, which are achieved partly by its hollowness. The fact that the facing brick has a cavity inside also facilitates its installation,because, thanks to this, the weight of this building material is relatively low. Perhaps this is one of the best options for cladding wooden houses.
Does facing brick have disadvantages? Yes, there is, of course, where without them. You should know that a brick is capable of absorbing excess moisture. In addition, experts are of the opinion that domestic facing bricks are significantly inferior in quality to foreign counterparts, since they include impregnations of quicklime, an unequal shape and different shades of bricks within the same batch.
If for any reason brick cladding of the building is impossible, it is worth considering such an option as facade tiles. In terms of their performance, facade tiles practically do not differ from bricks - they are just as frost-resistant, resistant to mechanical, atmospheric and temperature influences, heat-absorbing and diverse. However, the installation of facade tiles is much simpler than a brick cladding device, the only thing it requires is the preparation of the base. Facade tiles are fixed on cement or special mastics and can be used both in new construction and for renovation and reconstruction of old buildings, and it is perfect even for simple cosmetic repairs. Another advantage of facade tiles is their relatively low price.
A fundamentally different way of facing facades involves the use of siding. Various types of siding are available on the market today, the most popular of which are vinyl and metal siding. Today, this is one of the most and most profitable ways of lining knowledge in terms of time and money. Both the cost of the material itself and the costs associated with its installation are relatively low. The siding is mounted on a wooden lathing and allows for the full cladding of buildings, up to the sub-eaves space, in a short time. Siding by itself does not provide adequate thermal insulation, but a thermal insulation layer can be arranged under it without problems.
If we compare steel siding with vinyl, then the first option is more durable, resistant to mechanical stress and durable. The service life of steel siding is on average 50 years, vinyl - from 30 to 40. Today, even siding for finishing plinths is produced, which is particularly durable. The siding plates have special holes for ventilation and evaporation of condensation, which allows for a breathable facade. With the help of siding, it is possible to cover both stone and wooden buildings.
Well, the picture won't be complete if we don't talk about the disadvantages of siding. Depends mainly on the source material. For example, steel siding is heavy, corrosive, more expensive than other types of siding, is quite noisy and does not recover from damage. Therefore, this type of siding is not used, as a rule, when facing residential buildings - rather, it is an option for warehouses, industrial buildings, terminals. An alternative to steel siding is corrugated board, which is also used quite often, especially since the cost of facing with a profiled sheet is cheaper, and its installation is even easier than installing siding. This is perhaps the most economical cladding option in general. In recent years, it has been gaining more and more popularity, since the corrugated board is perfect for the installation of ventilated facades.
Vinyl siding is one of the most popular finishing materials in the West. We also find it increasingly used. This type of cladding is especially in demand in individual construction. This finishing material is practically devoid of serious drawbacks, except, perhaps, its instability to low temperatures. Although now there are types of siding that can be operated even at -50 ° C thanks to various additives.
There are other types of siding: cement, wood, aluminum. But they are not widely used in the market. Cement is too heavy, aluminum is subject to mechanical deformation, but wood does not have sufficient durability, and requires constant maintenance.
After talking about siding, I don't even want to discuss the possibility of facing facades with clapboard or tongue-and-groove boards. But still, let's say a few words about this. Of course, natural wood cladding looks beautiful. But only for the time being. In order for natural wood to be used for exterior decoration, it must be treated with various compounds that prevent rotting, the growth of mold and fungi, the reproduction of microorganisms and pests. But even so, the durability of this type of cladding is questionable. Considering the rather high price of facing materials made of natural wood, it seems that the game is not worth it, especially if there is a more suitable alternative.