Table of contents:
- Types of spiral staircases and materials used
- We make a spiral staircase with our own hands
A spiral staircase is cheaper than a march staircase, in addition, it will become an excellent decor element in any room, bringing an element of originality into it. It is also convenient that the space under the spiral staircase is practically free - its design is very lightweight outwardly. The disadvantage of a spiral staircase is that you cannot move quickly along it, you must firmly hold on to the handrails both when descending and when ascending, otherwise there is a high probability of injury.
When designing a spiral staircase, it is important to accurately calculate its parameters, including those applied to users. Careful calculation will make the spiral staircase as comfortable as possible. And yet, for frequent use, for carrying objects, a spiral staircase with a width of less than 1 m will not work - it is important to understand this right away. A spiral staircase is more convenient as an alternative ascent / descent option.
Types of spiral staircases and materials used
The main difference between spiral staircases and others is the absence of mid-flight platforms. The spiral staircase is a continuous flight of stairs, the steps of which are called winders. The steps are fixed to the ladder radially, forming a ladder screw, which has either a circular or a polygonal shape in the horizontal plane. If the spiral staircase is located at a distance from the walls, it usually has a round shape, if in the immediate vicinity of the walls, it is polygonal. The construction of spiral staircases is based on spiral bowstrings, stringers located on the sides of the staircase or in its middle, or on a support post installed in the center of the staircase. You can make a staircase without any special supports by connecting the steps to each other and reinforcing the railing on the balusters - railing posts at the beginning and end of the stairs.
Among the best are the construction of a spiral staircase, when the support of the run-in steps is carried out both on the rack in the center and on the walls around the perimeter, or only on the walls that form the stairwell. For fastening, grooves are made in the walls, overlays are installed on them, or - run-in steps are attached to the bolts. Fastening steps to walls is one of the most difficult, especially if the walls are rounded.
Steps for spiral staircases are made of solid wood (maple, oak and beech), sheet and profiled metal, glass, plastic. Marbles, tiles, etc. can be used, but mostly for outdoor stairs. Bowstrings and railings are made of glued hardwood, metal or metal + wood combination.
If the staircase structure includes a central support post, then it can be brick, wood, concrete or stone. The most convenient material for the rack is a finished pipe, steel or asbestos-cement, it will be easier to fix the steps on it with a welded, socket or bolted connection. Reinforced concrete can also be chosen as the main building material for a spiral staircase - the question is whether the base will withstand such a weight.
We make a spiral staircase with our own hands
You will find here how to make a spiral staircase of the simplest type - with support on a central pillar. And we will talk about a few important details that must be considered when designing spiral staircases.
The number of complete turns of the winder steps of a spiral staircase will depend on its height and angle of inclination, however, it is important that the number of steps in a full turn is not less than 12 (18 cm high). Otherwise, the lifter will have every chance of hitting his head on his upper feet. You can calculate the exact number of steps by dividing the height of the intended staircase by the step height.
It is difficult to make a staircase with graceful spirals of bowstrings with your own hands; the process of creating a spiral bowstring is difficult even for industrial production. In the first method, timber blanks are glued, from which a part of the desired curvilinear shape is cut out on a programmable woodworking machine. The external lightness of such production is deceiving - the wood grains are located straight and when rounding, multiple splits can occur, which will affect the strength of the product. This technology is associated with significant wood consumption, losses can reach 80%.
The second method has been for many hundreds of years - keeping a wooden blank for softening the fibers in boiling water, with a gradual bend. The process is simple - you need to keep the wood blank in a container with boiling water for several hours. Then the workpiece is subjected to mechanical stress, causing deflection in the required places. The impact must be maintained until the workpiece is completely dry, then remove the fixation - the wooden workpiece will retain its shape. Each type of wood has its own terms of steaming in boiling water.
The most modern and effective method today is gluing together thin (5-8 mm) wood lamellas, which can be given any bend. Based on this technique, bowstrings and handrails can be obtained with virtually any curvature required.
Having completed the design and installation of a spiral staircase made of wood, you must carefully consider its final finish - painting. If a wooden staircase has a beautiful texture, it is best to preserve it with a clear lacquer finish. It is necessary to apply varnish in several layers, having previously cleaned all the wooden elements of the stairs with an emery cloth and covered it with stain to emphasize the structure of the wood. For painting, it is better to use parquet varnish - it is more resistant to abrasion, which will be exposed to steps and railings. It is important - before starting work on painting with varnish, you must thoroughly vacuum all staircase elements and exclude drafts - the varnish does not tolerate dust.
Wood with an unattractive structure needs to be painted with opaque finishing materials - nitro enamel or oil-based paint. This color will require the application of several layers. This is due to the fact that wood absorbs liquid paint components unevenly, which is especially known for coniferous wood.