Ladders - Everything You Need To Know About Them

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Ladders - Everything You Need To Know About Them
Ladders - Everything You Need To Know About Them

Video: Ladders - Everything You Need To Know About Them

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Video: How to Choose a Ladder (4 Steps) 2023, February
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  • Ladder device

    • Base of the stairs
    • Stair steps
    • Guardrail, railings and handrails
  • Materials used in the manufacture of staircase structures

    • Wood
    • Metal
    • A rock
  • The main types of stairs

    • Marching stairs
    • Spiral staircases

The main purpose of the stairs is to connect different levels of the room, as well as the ability to climb and descend to the desired floor. In ancient times, the staircase had a special purpose, it was believed that it connects the worlds, allowing you to move up or down. Several hundred years have passed since the appearance of the first staircase devices, mainly made of stone or tree branches, which made it possible to improve these structures, creating their various forms and types.

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Today, the manufacture and installation of stairs has gained wide popularity; they are actively used not only in city buildings, but in architectural buildings outside the city. It is difficult to imagine any multi-storey building without a staircase, even in spite of the existing modern methods of ascent or descent, such as, for example, an elevator.

Ladder device

The staircase device consists of individual elements, in principle it is considered quite simple: the base, steps and a fence, with handrails and railings.

Base of the stairs

The base of the ladder is considered to be the support of the entire supporting structure; it is its leading element, on which the type of ladder largely depends. Thus, there are several types of bases: kosour; bowstring; bolts and support.

A kosour is a load-bearing beam that is located under the stair steps; one or two kosour can be provided in the staircase design.

Bowstring - also represents a bearing beam, which is located at the ends of the stairs, as if tightly fixing the step, one or two bowstrings can also be used.

Bolz is, in fact, a load-bearing stair rail, with the help of which the steps are attached with one end to the handrail at the expense of the racks, and with the other they are attached to the wall.

The support post is the support of the spiral staircase, or otherwise - the central post, on which the main load is distributed, around which the steps are attached in a spiral.

Each base assumes its own characteristics of the location of the stairs in the interior of the room. So, structures with stringers or bowstrings, either rest on beams, thanks to which the flights of stairs are supported, or they can be self-supporting, having support points only in the upper and lower parts of the flight. They are mainly used to give a more volumetric shape and occupy a larger area. A completely different matter is a staircase on the bolts, its design looks almost weightless, elegant and compact due to the fact that the steps are either attached directly to the wall, or are located on rod supports. And as for the support leg, it is used only in one type of stairs that go up in a spiral.

Stair steps

The second important element of the staircase is the steps. It is they, depending on the size and appearance, that provide the convenience of the step, and also give the stairs either pomp or grace. There are various types of stair steps, as a rule, some form of a geometric figure is put in the basis: a rectangle, a polyhedron, a triangle. The steps of the stairs can have a closed shape, in this case additional elements are used - risers, or open, when they are not provided.

The width of the steps is also different, basically, their minimum value is 200-250 mm, and the maximum is no more than 400 mm, but such parameters are conditional, you can choose more non-standard sizes.

Guardrail, railings and handrails

A railing with handrails is the final element of the staircase structure, it is he who performs the function of protection against accidental falls. This is especially true for steep spiral staircases, which, despite all the splendor of their external appearance, are considered one of the most dangerous in terms of injury.

The appearance of the fence can also have various shapes; it can be made in the form of posts, beams or rectangular elements. The handrails and railings of the stairs are part of the fence, and, on the one hand, ensure safety, and on the other hand, they allow you to give the entire staircase structure uniqueness, completeness and beauty.

Materials used in the manufacture of staircase structures

A variety of building and finishing materials today allow using their various options for the manufacture of stairs. As a rule, the supporting structure is made of reinforced concrete, wood or metal, and is decorated with other facing materials: stone, forging, glass, ceramic tiles, mosaics and the like. The combination of several materials in one staircase structure, for example, wood and metal, or metal, glass and natural stone, is also recognized as successful.

Wood

Most often, wood of various types of wood is used for the manufacture of stairs: oak, pine, larch, ash, maple. However, there are some features for its use - for a start, the wood dries well, a minimum percentage of moisture from 6% to 12% is allowed, then the wooden elements of the staircase are glued together from several beams, which allows them to be preserved for many years and to protect them from defects. for temperature differences. It is also very important to remember that when manufacturing parts, their geometry must have an ideal shape, only in this case it is possible to avoid further deformation.

Before installing the ladder, the wooden surface is coated with varnish or oil. The varnish provides a high level of wear resistance to the steps, but wears off over time, which requires additional sanding of the worn surface. The oil, on the other hand, penetrates deep into the wood, revealing its texture brighter, and ensures a longer service life of the staircase elements. You can start assembling and installing a wooden staircase only after all finishing work is completed, otherwise its appearance may suffer.

Metal

Another popular staircase material, especially for hi-tech style, is metal. As a rule, stainless steel or cast iron is used at the base of the stairs and for its steps. The frame, made of stainless material, is most often used for spiral staircases due to the high load on its base.

In addition, stair railings are also made of metal. For the manufacture of handrails, the metal can be subjected to special galvanic treatment, such as chrome plating, nickel plating and others. But it is also worth remembering that in this case, you should use threaded connections, which are fastened with a nut. Also, the metal can be given various effects: scuffs, bronze sheen or shading, by applying special coatings. Forged or bent metal elements of the staircase also look great in the interior, giving the interior a special atmosphere of wealth.

A rock

Stone stairs also have a unique appearance and are more durable. Most often, marble or granite is used to make stone stairs. As a rule, reinforced concrete is taken as a base. If the staircase is installed in the house, then, in principle, it does not really matter which of the building materials to choose, since both of them have a low degree of wear and tear. But, if it is a staircase outside, then stone steps, especially in winter, can pose a serious danger, especially if they have been polished. A safer option is a stone surface, the top layer of which has undergone heat treatment, otherwise it is fired by fire, the resulting light roughness will help to avoid falling from the stairs.

The main types of stairs

Interfloor stairs, depending on the layout and location in the room, are divided into two large categories: marching and spiral.

Marching stairs

Marching stairs - this type of staircase design, which is recognized as one of the most popular in use. This is largely determined by the ease of use of this type of stairs in almost any building. Their design consists of one or more marches (or otherwise - spans), interconnected by one or more intermediate platforms. The form of the flight stairs is different, it can be straight, curved in three projections, Z- or S-shaped, or have a turn.

There are several types of marching stairs, which differ in the number of marching elements, so they distinguish between one-, two- or multi-flight staircase structures. By the name it is easy to determine how many flights are used in the stairs.

As a rule, in one flight of stairs there are at least three and no more than fifteen steps. Traditionally, a march of ten to eleven steps is used - this number is considered optimal, provides ease of descent or ascent. Longer structures are separated by intermediate platforms, equal in width or slightly exceeding the dimensions of the flight of stairs. In many ways, a turn, which can be 90, 180 or 360 degrees, will also save space, turning the fundamental nature of the structure into an advantage, as some use the space under the stairs for some kind of auxiliary room.

Spiral staircases

Spiral staircases, or otherwise - spiral, are considered an alternative to marching, however, they are less convenient for descending or ascending. Therefore, this type of staircase is conceived more as an auxiliary one, most often, performing the function of interior decoration. However, for small rooms, a spiral staircase is the best option, since it is more compact and does not allow you to hide excess space.

The entire structure of spiral staircases is usually located around a central pillar or column, forming a regular radius and rising upward in a spiral, and steps are attached to the base. The narrow side of the step is attached to the rack, and the wide side to the wall or fence. The shape of the steps of spiral staircases, as a rule, is open, so there is no riser. The profile of the structure is referred to as a stair screw, which can be circular, square, wedge or rectangular.

Having made the decision to install a staircase in a residential area, you can get lost in all the variety of forms and types of their designs. Therefore, before making a final choice, it is worth evaluating not only the advantages of appearance, but also design conveniences, as well as a single direction of artistic style in interior design. Only a successful combination of all these factors will ensure the convenience of moving in a multi-storey building.

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