Video: How To Install The Air Conditioner Correctly
2023 Author: Douglas Hoggarth | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:23
Problem: The main difficulty faced by the buyer of a split system is the problem of correct installation. Installation by 90% determines the quality and service life of the air conditioner. If mistakes were made during the installation, then it is very difficult to correct them later.
Solution: Installation should be carried out by specialists licensed to install air conditioners, in compliance with the instructions and using special equipment. After installation, no debris, no dust, no boxes should remain in the room. The word "air conditioner" has taken root only in our country. This is actually a piece of the phrase air-condition, which in translation from English means "air condition". The air conditioner is used to maintain the desired temperature and humidity in the room. By ventilating the air, the air conditioner purifies it by letting the air flow through special filters.
Today we will talk about installing a more modern type of air conditioning system - a split system. What are the advantages of a split system over a "conventional" air conditioner? The split system does not block natural light, like a "window sill" that is cut into a window frame. This is the first difference. In addition, it does not depend on the general air conditioning system of the house, if there is one (this is when one hefty block stands somewhere in the basement and drives air throughout the house). And it differs from the "ordinary" air conditioner in that it consists of two blocks - external and internal. If there are more than two indoor units, then this is already called a "multisplit system".
But let's agree: for the sake of simplicity, I will talk about the split-system, calling it a more familiar word for our ear, "air conditioner".
First - renovation, then - split
So, a split system (from the English word split - "to split, split") consists of two separate blocks: an internal (evaporator) and an external or external (condenser). The blocks are connected with each other by electric wires and two copper pipes through which a refrigerant (freon) flows. A thin plastic tube (drainage) also goes out from the indoor unit to remove condensed moisture. Ideally, it should be connected to a drain (sewer) pipe or to a special tank, but often it is simply taken out into the street, and then drops of water fall on the heads of passers-by (see below for how to properly drain the drain).
The principle of operation of a split system is as follows. If the room needs to be cooled, then from the heat exchanger of the outdoor unit, through one copper tube, freon enters the heat exchanger of the indoor unit. There it is blown by a fan, as a result of which cold air comes out of the indoor unit. If the air in the room needs to be heated, then with the help of a heat pump, the external condenser becomes an evaporator, and the evaporator becomes a condenser. In addition to the condenser and evaporator, the split system includes a compressor, which is installed in an external unit. The main function of the compressor is to compress the freon to give this gas properties that significantly increase the efficiency of the air conditioner.
1 - outdoor (external) block
2 - indoor wall block
The indoor unit works almost silently (for Daikin models, the noise level of some indoor units is 28 - 31 dB, and for Mitsubishi, when the engine is turned on at the lowest speed, it is 26 dB; the same noise level is created by a flying butterfly). On the other hand, the fan and compressor of the external device may “hum” and louder.
Indoor units are wall-mounted and floor-to-ceiling by the method of attachment (floor-to-ceiling are called so because they can be attached to both the ceiling and the floor). There are also cassette and multi-zone indoor units, but we will talk about them next time.
Wall-mounted indoor units are most often installed in apartments. With the help of movable blinds on the wall unit, you can change the direction of the air flow. But the power of wall blocks is specially limited - otherwise a strong jet of cold air will simply "blow off" everything in its path. But if a more powerful air conditioner is required in a room (for example, in an office), a floor-ceiling unit is installed. It will direct a strong jet along the wall or ceiling and thus ensure an even temperature distribution in the room.
Our advice: if the length of the room significantly exceeds its width, it is much more efficient to install a floor-ceiling air conditioner!
Split systems differ in power (cooling capacity) and design. The choice of design is at the discretion of the buyer. But about the power, you must definitely consult with a specialist. That being said, you need to know:
1. The area (volume) of your premises.
2. The size of the window, the side of the world it faces.
3. The presence (absence) of blinds on the windows.
4. The number of constantly operating equipment that generates heat (TV, computer, etc.).
5. The number of radiators in the rooms.
6. The number of people constantly in the room.
7. Is there forced ventilation?
Another tip: if at the company where you want to buy the air conditioner, they did not ask you about this, then it is better not to buy from them. Because there is a danger that you are being offered the “typical wrong”. In reputable firms, before selling an air conditioner, a consultant usually goes to the place of the proposed installation of the device, makes measurements and finds out all the necessary details. Then all this data is entered into the program, and only after that the computer selects the optimal model. So, for example, they work in the Aeroprof company, specializing in Carrier air conditioners (USA), in the Meteomarket company (Daikin air conditioners and the KlimatSS company (Hitachi air conditioners)).
This is how the distribution of air flows from the wall-mounted indoor unit looks like
What else do you need to know? SPLIT SYSTEM specialists advise BEFORE or DURING THE REPAIR, and not after all the repair work has already been carried out. Then you don't have to chisel and drill the freshly painted and leveled walls to lay the wiring for the air conditioner and strengthen the brackets for fixing the indoor unit. You can, of course, hide communications in outer boxes, but this will not decorate the interior.
Moreover, installation work in a freshly renovated apartment is much more expensive, especially after European renovation.
Now about other possible "ambushes". Very often, mistakes begin even when buying an air conditioner. Wanting to save money, we go to the nearest store (or even to the market) and buy an air conditioner. So what? And that's all: we are alone with him. In the best case, after carefully reading the instructions, we undertake to install it.
Meanwhile, installing a split system in an apartment is not at all the same as installing a refrigerator or a TV set: they say, brought it home, put it in the chosen place, turned it on and - it works! With air conditioning, this room will not work. The air conditioner requires proper installation. Here is just the case when you cannot save on installation. The better it is installed, the longer it will last. It is no coincidence that assembly work is 18–30% of the unit cost.
I remember how one experienced and discreet-looking installer, answering my quite innocent question: where to start installing the air conditioner, suddenly became agitated and cried out: “People! You are all literate! Each air conditioner is provided with instructions in Russian, in which both the installation and the operating rules are described "for fools", point by point. Yes, you read it, damn it, before you stick your hands! Better yet, call specialists. " And he, alas, is right.
Installation: where to start?
Split system installation diagram
1. Communications (in the strobe)
2. Drainage (in the strobe)
5. Wiring - to the dashboard (in the strobe)
6. A hole in the wall, punched with a slope of 1-3 °
First stage: separate wiring is carried out
For any, even low-power (1.5 kW) air conditioner, it is necessary to carry out a separate electrical wiring and put a separate machine in the electrical panel. Because the old wiring may not withstand the load and, God forbid, catch fire. If a separate wiring for the air conditioner is laid by installers, the possibility of a fire is reduced to almost zero.
Be especially vigilant if your home is older than 1990. In old houses, wiring, alas, is not designed for loads from the use of powerful electrical equipment. Installers remember the case when the owner of the apartment was forced to replace all the wiring due to the air conditioner: the old one simply could not stand it and constantly knocked out the plugs.
Second stage: installation of the outdoor unit
To do this, the installers drill holes for the brackets, on which they then install the external unit.
If you put it on an open balcony, then there are no problems: you attached it with bolts, the breeze blows over it - and order (if the balcony is glazed, then the device will not have enough air to work and it will soon break). If you want to attach the unit to the wall, then you cannot do without sturdy brackets. Moreover, they must withstand a weight several times the weight of the unit. On high floors, the "outside" is mounted from a machine equipped with a sliding ladder. Or they call climbers (if the installation goes above the 5th floor). These calls are charged separately and cost from $ 60 to $ 150. And sometimes a technician is required in the form of a machine with a fire escape-arrow, and a climber.
External and internal (wall) blocks of the split-system "Carrier"
If you live on higher floors, then the outdoor unit can be placed on the roof. But keep in mind that the height difference between the indoor and outdoor units should not exceed 3–20 meters (depending on the brand of air conditioner and model).
If your apartment is located on the ground floor, I highly recommend hanging the outdoor unit higher than 1.8–2 meters above the ground and “hide” it in a cage. And then they can steal. One of the firms told us a story. A man came and ordered only an external unit. The managers were surprised: "Why don't you want a whole split system." - “Yes, I have an air conditioner inside, but the outer“box”was cut off yesterday. On the first floor, hung under the window. " Regardless of the height at which the external block is "screwed", it is necessary to make a metal visor over it. This will save the block from snow and icicles, which tend to fall from roofs in spring, breaking everything in their path.
In general, the installation of an external unit is a responsible business. If it is weakly secured, it can fall … on someone. During the warranty period, the company that installed the air conditioner is responsible for the consequences of this. And then - you yourself will answer.
What cannot be done with the outdoor (outdoor) unit?
There are space restrictions for installing an outdoor unit:
1. The surface of the wall, on which the unit will be installed, must be strong (otherwise it may collapse under the weight of the unit) and smooth (otherwise the unit will vibrate and deform).
2. Do not bend the pipes with refrigerant (freon) several times over a small area and unscrew their connections (this will lead to refrigerant leakage). If the tubes are twisted into a ring with a radius of less than 100 mm, then it will be more difficult for the compressor to pump freon.
Stage three: installing the indoor unit
Air conditioner control panel
The installers fix special brackets with screws to the wall (if the unit is wall-mounted) or to the ceiling (if the unit is ceiling-mounted) and install the units on them. After that, be sure to check the strength of the fastening (does the structure stagger? When you turn on the air conditioner, does it vibrate?). Otherwise, sooner or later, the whole structure may simply collapse on your head.
But for the floor unit, special fasteners are not required. He, as they say, "will stand on foot." You just need to immediately choose a place for it (when choosing a place, take into account that the unit does not blow on the curtains or on the wall and stand away from the heat source). And although the block is not attached to the floor, after laying all the communications it is no longer possible to move it from place to place.
So, the indoor unit cannot be installed:
1.… over a heat source (eg over a radiator). Otherwise, the air conditioner will work for cooling "until the pulse is lost" and will fail very quickly. Imagine that you open the refrigerator door, and it will cool not only the chamber, but the entire room. It will "work" and be out of order by the end of the day. The same will happen with the air conditioner. In addition, the heat generated by the room battery can deform the plastic housing of the unit.
2.… in rooms where devices with high-frequency electromagnetic oscillations are constantly working (eg drill, drilling machine). High frequency vibrations can knock down the chip (processor) installed inside the air conditioner.
3. … directly above the bed or workplace, otherwise there is a danger of constantly catching cold or, worse, getting pneumonia.
4.… where air circulation is difficult, such as behind curtains, etc. The distance to the obstacle should not be less than 3 meters. Otherwise, the air conditioner that maintains the set temperature automatically will fail. The cooled (or heated) air flow from the air conditioner will bounce off the obstacle and return back with the same temperature as it exited. The air conditioner will decide that the work has been done, the desired climate is set and will turn off. This is exactly what happened with my friends. Their air conditioner was constantly "confused in the curtains" and turned off, not having time to bring the room temperature to the set. I had to call specialists and reinstall the system.
5.… with a bias - then water (condensate) will flow out of it onto the floor, which, according to the installation rules, must be discharged through a drainage pipe into a special tank (see our certificate on drainage). Stage four: chipping walls or floors
In order to connect electric wires and freon tubes between air conditioner units, installers punch gutters in the walls or on the ceiling (or, as the installers say, you need to "grind the line"). This is done in the event that you want to make a hidden trunk. Sometimes you have to "grind", for example, not the walls, but the floor of the apartment.
Do you want to shit? Then you can hide the wires in decorative plastic boxes (sometimes the boxes are removed under the baseboard). But before that, installers will have to connect two copper pipes (for refrigerant) and the "ends" of the wiring between the outdoor and indoor units. Make sure installers do this with connecting fittings. And a “waterproofing glass” with a connecting hose was laid in the previously punched hole in the outer wall.
The installers arrive at the site with all the necessary equipment, communications are laid in the gate, the drain pipe is placed in the gate at a slope
After that, they must carry out the so-called vacuuming of communications, and it is obligatory for 50 minutes (it is during this time that “excess” air and moisture will come out of the communications). This manipulation is done necessarily with the help of special equipment.
And keep in mind - for the drainage tube, as a rule, they make a separate hidden line (in the wall or under the floor).
The fifth stage: checking the system using a special program
At this stage, installers must turn on the split system (air conditioner) by installing it on the test program. If everything works and the case does not vibrate, then there is order. The work is almost finished. By the way, we advise you to independently carry out such a check of the system operation every year (using the same test program).
Sixth stage: garbage collection
I must warn you: laying the line and other installation procedures is dirt, dust and noise. But good installers (with a license to install air conditioners) will come with special tools (including a metal detector for examining walls for fittings and hidden communications).
In addition, the installers must have a vacuum cleaner and other cleaning machines. With their help, after the end of the work, they must independently remove all the garbage. If installers are trying to dodge the "dirty" work, strictly demand - "cleaning the territory" is included in the payment for installing the air conditioner. In addition, you can conclude an agreement with a reputable company for preventive maintenance of a split system. Then you do not have to risk your life, leaning your waist out of the window, vacuum the outdoor unit or call climbers at your own expense. At the conclusion of such an agreement (it includes warranty repairs), of course, you will have to pay a certain amount, but, believe me, it's worth it. By the way, we hasten to tell you a nice detail: the Meteomarket company, which sells Japanese Daikin air conditioners,after the expiration of the three-year service contract, will replace your air conditioner with a new one free of charge. However, if you are satisfied with the old unit, you can not change it for 20 years. The company guarantees its uninterrupted good work. By the way, Daikin air conditioners have been installed in the notorious building on Lubyanka since the days of the “corn general secretary” Nikita Khrushchev and still work properly.
The outdoor unit must be regularly cleaned from dust and dirt. Particularly difficult period of the outdoor unit is the time of flowering of poplars. The fluff instantly clogs the filters, and the air conditioner (if not cleaned immediately) breaks down. Of course, you can vacuum clean if you're not afraid of heights. But it is better not to risk it and call the "air conditioning rescue service" - that is, a service company.
At temperatures below –15 ° C, the air conditioner may refuse to work “for heat”, and then low-temperature equipment (heat pump, compressor heater and even a drain tube heater) will be needed. By the way, these devices are already included in some models (see table).
What did the installers say?
Experienced installers do not advise buying air conditioners "from whoever they have to", on the market or from hands.
“How many times has it happened, such illiterate bums will carry out the installation, and then people call us, beg for help,” one experienced installer from a very reputable company told me. - They used to bring such unfortunate installers with them a copper tube for freon, and it is without plugs. If there are no plugs, then moist air will get inside. And humidity is unacceptable for the air conditioner: connecting with the insides of the entire system, it forms acid that corrodes the air conditioner mechanism from the inside! And instead of regularly serving for many years, such an air conditioner is, of course, sent to a landfill after three years.
The installers told me that sometimes they come across especially stubborn customers, they say, "I'm crying, do as I say!" How to be? There was a case recently. The client ordered to install the outdoor unit not from the street side, but inside the apartment, and in the children's room. He motivated this with a strange statement that his children, they say, will live in the country for another two months. He ignored all the persuasions and arguments of the installers that the outdoor unit should not be installed in a closed, and even more so - in a living room. It is clear that two months later, the stubborn buyer called the installers to reinstall everything over a new one.
Or here's a case. The client wanted the indoor unit to blow directly onto the bed and the air temperature was 18 ° C. They tried to prove to him that it would be cold, in addition, the directed flow of cold air can cause a cold. "No! I will not catch a cold! Bet! " Nothing to do, set. The next day, they came to install the air conditioner in another room, they see, and the temperature on that yesterday's split is set at 22 ° C.
- What is it? - they ask.
- Really yours, guys, I froze at night.
In general, with the correct operation of the air conditioner, a person should not feel that something is cooling or heating him. Just comfortable - that's all! Once a friend called the firm and asked to come. Says: "I really didn't buy it from you." Okay, let's go. They opened the block, and there was a dead rat.
That's it. Hence the conclusion - it is not enough to buy and install a split system. The main thing is that professionals do it for you.
Split system installation procedure
1. Wiring a separate electrical wiring for the air conditioner and installing a separate "machine" in the switchboard.
2. Installation of the outdoor (outdoor) unit:
choosing a place for its installation (not lower than 1.8–2 meters above the ground, otherwise they can steal - there have been cases);
installation of support brackets (anchor bolts);
strengthening the external block on brackets;
drilling a hole with a diameter of 50-60 cm in the outer wall for connecting communications (connect the outer and inner blocks of the split system);
insertion into the hole of the “waterproofing glass” (the material from which the “glass” is made is the know-how of the installers); laying in a "glass" of connecting communications.
3. Installation of the indoor unit:
choice of location (the horizontal distance between the indoor and outdoor units should not exceed more than 7–30 meters - depending on the brand of the system);
installation of support brackets;
strengthening the indoor unit on the brackets.
4. Connection of system wires:
chipping a wall or floor (in order to hide communications or laying wires in a plastic case);
connecting wires (copper for refrigerant and electrical) from the outdoor unit to the indoor unit using connecting fittings;
carrying out a vacuum procedure (within 50 minutes, to remove air and moisture from communications using special equipment).
5. Trial switching on the system:
- checking the system operation using a special program.
6. Room cleaning (by the assemblers).
How should the proper drainage be arranged?
To do this, installers must:
1. Cut through the line.
2. Shut off the water in the apartment.
3. Drill a hole in the drain pipe.
4. Fit the drainage plastic tube with a siphon firmly into the hole. A layer of water in the siphon will trap the odor coming from the sewer.
Attention! The drainage tube, through which the accumulated moisture is removed, must necessarily go at an inclination of 5-10 mm so that there is a natural drainage of water. If the slope cannot be done for some reason, you must install a special pump for "forced suction of moisture". But! This pump is not included and must be purchased separately. The purchase will cost between $ 70 and $ 190, depending on the pump model you choose.
The main problems arising during the operation of the air conditioner
Problem 1: Air conditioner blows directly at you, creating a draft feeling.
Solution: It is necessary to turn on the auto-oscillation function of the horizontal blinds (then the draft will turn into a light breeze) or fix the horizontal shutters in a better position. If this does not work, you need to turn the air flow to the left or right using the vertical air dampers. In most air conditioners, this operation is done manually, but in some models it can be done using the remote control.
Problem 2: On hot days, the air conditioner does not provide the necessary coolness, despite the fact that it runs constantly.
Solution: In this case, you should check whether the filters are clogged, whether the windows and doors are closed, whether additional heating devices (boilers or toasters) are working in the room. It is recommended to hang thick white blinds on the windows that reflect heat and light well, thus reducing the heat input through the windows by almost half. If this does not help, the model must be replaced with a more powerful one.
Problem 3: Water is dripping from the indoor unit of the split system.
Solution: The drain line appears to be clogged. Most often, this situation occurs when an air conditioner with a drainage pipe brought out to the street is turned on for cooling at sub-zero temperatures. In this case, the condensate can turn into an ice plug. To avoid this, it is necessary to heat the drainage pipeline to +5 ° C using a special cable. If an ice plug does arise, then you should wait for the thaw, and until that moment, do not turn on the system for cooling.
Problem 4: Weak airflow.
Solution: Clean the air filter. This can be done with a vacuum cleaner or washed with a soft sponge in warm water. It is not recommended to operate the air conditioner without a filter, as it protects not only your lungs, but also the heat exchanger of the indoor unit. When the latter becomes dusty, the efficiency of the air conditioner decreases.
Problem 5: Icing of the outdoor unit when the air conditioner is operating for heating in conditions of low negative temperatures and high humidity.
Solution: If the air conditioner is not equipped with an automatic defrosting system, try turning it on in cooling mode. In this case, the outdoor unit begins to give off heat to the street, heats up and gradually thaws.
Problem 6: Premature air conditioner failure.
Solution: To avoid this, you should not operate it at temperatures below - 10-15 ° C. At lower temperatures, the oil in the compressor thickens and its wear increases many times over. There are various rumors about the dangers of air conditioners. But in the press center of the capital's SES, we were told that there is nothing to be afraid of: with timely replacement of filters and observing the operating rules, the split system does not harbor any harm. At least, there were no complaints to the Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision.