Video: Oil Paint
2023 Author: Douglas Hoggarth | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:23
Everyone knows that oil paint is almost a building archaism. She should not paint walls in living quarters. She does not recommend painting windows and doors. They don't work on ceilings. But. But at the same time, oil paint remains our constant companion.
Removing the old wallpaper layer by layer, you will inevitably come across a concrete wall painted with oil paint. Removing dilapidated bathroom tiles will also leave your gaze on an old coat of oil paint. Even when you roll up the worn-out linoleum, you still can't get away from the layer of oil paint that sometimes covered the floors. Determining our attitude to oil paint is quite difficult. On the one hand, it causes a lot of trouble for those who want to get rid of it. But, on the other hand, this material in some cases is an unsurpassed primer in its characteristics. Before defining who the oil paint is for us, friend or foe, let's pay some attention to the "hero of the occasion".
Even in the recent past, oil paints were the most common in our country. They used to paint everything and anything. At least in everyday life. There was practically no alternative. Everyone patiently waited for several days until the process of paint hardening was over, and the smell was taken for granted. Meanwhile, oil paint prevents not only people from breathing, but also the surface, therefore, after a few years (or even after a year or two), the film begins to peel off and fall off.
Today, among the areas of application of oil paint, only metal surfaces, as well as walls and ceilings of office premises (for example, a toilet), can be whitened. True, at the same time they arrange hoods in these rooms. Taking into account the fact that modern bathrooms, even at train stations, prefer to be tiled, albeit unpretentious, but still tiled, as well as taking into account the widespread use of plastic windows that do not need to be painted, the production of oil paints, according to the idea, should have stopped already. But that did not happen. And if oil paint is still being produced, then somebody needs it.
Say a word about the poor hussar …
Any paint consists of a pigment and a binder. Pigments are finely ground powders of mineral origin. They are insoluble in water, oil and solvent. That is why the paint must be thoroughly mixed before use, since the pigment settles, and a clean layer of binder remains on top.
Oil paints are made on the basis of artificial or natural drying oil. First, the pigment, which is most in the color scheme, is mixed, and then the rest are added. Then the paint is diluted to the desired thickness. To improve the quality, the paint is ground on a paint mill. Oil paints are considered the most durable and durable, in a certain situation they can be used for both interior and exterior decoration. Distinguish between thick-grated (bred before use with drying oils in the amount of 17-40%) and ready-to-use oil paints. As we have already said, drying oils, obtained mainly from vegetable oils, serve as a binder for oil paint. This type of binder has been known to mankind for the longest time. In appearance, drying oils are transparent liquids, painted in dark brown or light brown colors. Drying oils are classified by composition and purpose. By composition, there are 3 groups - oil, alkyd and others.
Oil varnishes, in turn, are subdivided into natural, combined and "Oksol" drying oils.
Natural drying oils are obtained by special processing of drying vegetable oils - linseed, hemp, by their processing (cooking) at a temperature of 150 ° C. They contain 100% drying oil (linseed, hemp) without solvent. Combined drying oil contains 30% solvent and 70% oil (a mixture of drying and 45% solvent, 55% oil.
The oil processed in this way acquires the ability to harden (dry out). It would be more accurate to call the process of their hardening polymerization, during which the strength and hardness of the film are gained. The drying process can be accelerated by introducing into the paint composition the already mentioned curing accelerators - desiccants (2-4% vol.).
Sunflower drying oil dries more slowly than linseed oil and hemp oil. The film of sunflower drying oil is elastic, but the hardness, strength and water resistance are less than that of films of linseed or hemp drying oil. Natural drying oils are intended for the production of thick grated and ready-to-use paints for external and internal use.
Combined drying oils and drying oils "oxol" are obtained from compacted vegetable oils by special chemical treatment and dilution up to 45% with volatile solvents. Oxidized drying oils oxols are obtained by oxidation of heated sunflower oil with prolonged air passage in the presence of catalysts (the oil is oxidized and thickens in this case). When a solvent (such as white spirit) is added to such a thickened oil, a clear product with a normal viscosity is obtained. The process of "drying" of such drying oils occurs both as a result of the evaporation of the solvent, and as a result of the processes of interaction of oils with atmospheric oxygen.
Combined drying oils of the K3, K5 brands are intended for the production of paints for external and internal works. Combined drying oils of grades K2, K4, K12, K11, for paints used only for interior work.
Oksol V drying oil is used to dilute thick-grated oil paints PV to working viscosity only for internal work.
LMS (polymerized drying oil) is a substitute for natural drying oil and is used for both interior and exterior paints.
Glyphthalic drying oil is made from vegetable oil, glycerin, etc. The solvent content is not more than 50%. Pentaphthalic oil is also made from alkyd resin.
Artificial drying oils (synthol, carbonol, etc.) either do not contain vegetable oils at all, or contain small amounts. In terms of quality, they are significantly inferior to natural drying oil and oxol.
Alkyd drying oils are alkyd resin solutions modified with oils. They are glyphthalic, pentaphthalic, and xiphthalic. Other drying oils include the so-called artificial drying oils, including oil-free ones based on polymerization products of hydrocarbons of oil, shale, fish oils, etc.
Thus, oil paints are a mixture of pigments, fillers (talc, barium sulfate, barite) and drying oil.
According to GOSTs, oil paints of the following brands are produced (depending on the type of film-forming substance):
MA-021 - on natural drying oil;
MA-025 - on combined drying oil;
GF-023 - on glyphtal oil;
PF-024 - based on pentaphthalic varnish.
The number 2 indicates that the paint diluted with the appropriate varnish is intended for all surfaces.
Ready-to-use paints are sold packaged in containers of 0.5-3 liters. The labels indicate the purpose of the paint, color, consumption per 1 sq. surfaces for one-layer and two-layer coating, used thinners, etc. These instructions should be strictly adhered to. To make the paint more liquid, suitable for priming, it is diluted with solvents or thinners: white spirit, turpentine, kerosene, etc.
All brands of paints have the following colors (the hiding power of the paint for the paint consistency is indicated in brackets):
ivory (200 g / sq. m.);
pale yellow (160 g / sq. m.);
beige (120 g / sq. m.);
gray (100 g / m2);
light blue (100 g / sq. m.);
blue (100 g / m2);
blue (100 g / m2);
yellow (140 g / m2);
salad (140 g / sq. m.);
pistachio (135 g / m2);
green (100 g / m2);
red (65 g / m2);
dark red (100 g / sq. m.);
brown (100 g / m2).
The advantage of oil materials is a high degree of filling, as well as low consumption. They are excellent primers for, for example, treating boards before painting.
In cases where oil paints contain only one coloring pigment in their composition, the words "paint" are replaced by the name of the dye, for example, "ocher", "red lead", etc. and conditions of use, additional indexes are used:
B - no volatile solution
B - for water-diluting
VD - for water-dispersed (water-based)
OD - for organodispersed
P - for powder
Before proceeding with the description of some types of oil paint, we note that this paint and varnish material is subject to a rather strict classification according to the standards of GOST. Therefore, oil paints do not have individual names. Depending on the scope of their application, they are designated by the abbreviation of the letters and numbers that we talked about above. The choice of oil paint is usually done as follows. First, the purpose of the paint is determined, then they make a choice in favor of one or another manufacturer, taking into account, of course, the price factor.
How to work with oil paint?
1. When painting with oil paint, you can get a matte surface by adding a 40% solution of laundry soap to the paint at the rate of 1 piece per 3 liters of paint. The soap is cut with shavings, poured with water (so that it slightly covers) and heated until it dissolves. Then, stirring, add to the paint.
2. If a film has formed on the paint layer, it is not necessary to filter it. You can dip a piece of nylon stocking into the jar, and dip the brush directly through the stocking.
3. If you want to paint the walls, you must first remove the old paint with a spatula, after wetting the walls with water. After everything is dry, cover up any cracks. Then prime the wall horizontally and then vertically. The paint for the walls is prepared in the same way as the whitewash for the ceiling. The selection of colors and shades of paint is checked on a piece of glass, which is then dried over low heat. The paint is too dark - you need to add a little chalk. Light paint can be made darker by adding colored pigments.
4. Walls painted with oil paint can be washed with warm water with baking soda, ammonia (1 tablespoon of alcohol per liter of water), then wipe with a damp and then dry cloth.
5. To prevent paint from falling on your hands and dripping onto the floor during apartment renovation, you need to cut the rubber bulb from the syringe and put it on the brush handle.
6. The smell of oil paint after the repair will quickly disappear if you put vessels with salt water in two or three places in the room. You can also rub the head of garlic and leave it in the room for a while.
7. If the oil paint has become covered with a film from long storage, in no case should it be stirred, but the film should be carefully removed. If the film is torn, cut a circle from the gauze around the diameter of the can and lower it onto the paint. The gauze will cover the shreds of the film and sink with them to the bottom.
8. To prevent the oil paint from drying out, pour a thin layer of sunflower oil on its surface.
9. Do not merge the remains of different paints together, this mixture may never dry after painting.
10. The paint on the brush will not dry if the brush is placed in water.
11. To easily remove the paint on the floor, windows, tiles, you need to cover them with soapy water (20-30 g of soap per 1 liter of water) before starting the repair.
12. Before work, it is recommended to wrap new brushes 2/3 of the hair length with twine.
13. To prevent hair loss on the new brush, you need to hold it in water for a day or two. Or drive a small wooden wedge into the handle holder. You can remove the cartridge and pour a little varnish or oil paint into it.
14. Oil paint on a dried brush can be easily removed if you put it in a jar with ammonia, kerosene, turpentine or other solvents.
15. The brush will rinse well after the glue paint if you immerse it in warm water with a little soda, then rinse and hang with your hair down.
Areas of application of oil paint
However, it should be understood that oil paint is practically no longer used as a paint, that is, as a material for finishing walls. But as a primer for some other finishing materials, it is an unrivaled leader.
This chapter will also be useful to those readers who are faced with the problem of "eliminating" a layer of old oil paint. As everyone knows, it is very difficult to remove the inorganic composition (in this case, oil paint) out of sight. First, you need to clean the paint layer, then clean the surface, then level it and only then paint, paste over … In some cases, the surface preparation procedure kills any desire to renew the walls. It is for those who have become hostages of the old oil paint that we offer two options for turning the "enemy" into a friend.
In this article we will look at two options for using oil paint as a primer. Perhaps there are many more of them, but in this case, the verbal recommendations of the sellers were tested in a practice kit. Oil paint has established itself as the best primer for a new layer of alkyd enamels, liquid wallpaper and self-adhesive films.
Let's start with the latter. "Using a self-adhesive film, you can make repairs without mountains of rubbish, no paint smell, no shavings and sawdust," says the advertising slogan. It is rather difficult to argue with this statement, since self-adhesive, as it is called in everyday life, has a huge number of advantages that set it apart from other finishing materials.
First, self-adhesive films have an almost unlimited range of applications. It sticks easily to wood, glass, metal and synthetic surfaces, which means you can update any household items: bookshelves, kitchen cabinets, glass surfaces, countertops, doors, stools.
Secondly, today there are more than 500 colors of self-adhesive films: marble and stone, velor and velvet, wood, stained glass and mirror. Countless patterns, structures, colors and clever combinations, including a special range of borders, open up unlimited possibilities for designers. Monochrome self-adhesive films in saturated colors, matte and glossy, with ornaments, patterns and structures, with artless elegance or with a fashionable metallic sheen, self-adhesive films for purely decorative finishes or for more practical purposes, to emphasize individual design details or to completely renew a situation - self-adhesive films are very widely used everywhere.
Woodgrain self-adhesive tapes cover about 70 different designs, from classic oak and pine, tropical woods, beech to whimsical fantasy designs. The palette of patterned films ranges from embossed transparencies and clear patterned glass for window decoration to fantastic patterns and children's motifs, while special tile, marbled and embossed patterns allow you to quickly and cheaply reproduce natural material. Iridescent or metallic self-adhesive foils and self-adhesive foils with a velor effect are rich in color play. There is also a self-adhesive film, which, thanks to a special seal, is specially designed for surfaces subject to heavy loads.
Thus, choosing the desired color for self-adhesive is not difficult. Besides, the self-adhesive film comes not only in different colors, but also in different textures: marble and stone, stained glass, velvet and mirror, beech, ash and walnut… only a few hundred types.
Self-adhesive film is produced:
- "standard" (one-color: glossy and matte, with imitation of fine wood veneer, children's stories, imitation of processed stones, ceramic tiles, canvas, stained glass windows, fabrics, tapestries) "special design" (metallic, "velor-like", covered with natural cork, "blackboard", self-adhesive furniture and door foil, thickened self-adhesive foil for tabletops and window sills)
Borders are produced for the self-adhesive film - rolls 5.3 cm and 10.6 cm wide (10 m long). They are ideal for finishing any things and allow you to combine a variety of furnishings into a single group (when framing mirrors and paintings, finishing cabinets, decorating various boxes, book bindings, etc.).
Self-adhesive tape is a waterproof material, that is, it can be used in rooms with high humidity. She is also not afraid of high temperatures and can withstand up to 80 C.
Finally, it has an optimal roll width. The film is presented in rolls 2 m and 15 m long and 45 cm, 67.5 cm and 90 cm wide. Self-adhesive remnants are useful for pasting many small household items - children's appliques, boxes for games or book bindings.
How to work with self-adhesive
The base to be covered with self-adhesive tape must be clean, smooth, free of grease and dust. To degrease the surface, you can wipe it with water and detergent, or in emergency cases with an alkaline solution.
The ideal base is lacquered boards, free of dust. Boards without varnish are primed with polyester or primer varnish and, if necessary, with methyl wallpaper glue.
Rough, porous surfaces (wood, plywood, chipboard, fabric, cork, ceramic tiles, gypsum, plaster, etc.) must be dry and free from dust. If necessary, the surface can be primed.
Uneven or cracked substrates are leveled with a filler and sanded. Then they need to be cleaned and coated with a primer - this is necessary to ensure maximum adhesion of the self-adhesive film. The sharpening dust is brushed off or washed off with ethyl alcohol.
The manufacturer's instructions do not say a word about concrete surfaces. For example, about the walls in the bathroom, where self-adhesive films are often used. As it turned out, for the film, which they plan to stick on concrete or concrete mixture, the best base is either oil paint or plaster. Most craftsmen who prefer to make repairs with their own hands will prefer plaster. However, it should be noted that ready-to-use (latex-based) plasters in this case will be absolutely useless. If it is necessary to close up the cracks in the wall, and then paste over it with self-adhesive film, plaster based on a dry mixture is better than others. In the event that the wall does not need additional repair work, oil paint is preferred.
The process of pasting itself is as follows. The surface is slightly moistened with an aqueous solution with the addition of detergent. Then completely remove the back paper side from the self-adhesive foil and place the self-adhesive foil on a moistened base. This will make it easier to adjust the self-adhesive tape to the desired position. When the desired position is reached, lightly press the self-adhesive tape and, using a cloth or sponge, smooth the surface towards the edges and downward, removing water.
Slicing is facilitated by a centimeter grid (scale), which is printed on the back paper side of the self-adhesive film. When cutting long, straight pieces, it is recommended to cut with a knife along a straight edge. It is recommended to cut it with a margin of 2-3 cm. If the self-adhesive film has a pattern with a rapport, then you need to cut it on the front side. Self-adhesive foil with a "tile-like" pattern is cut along the seams of the "tiles".
On the reverse side of the self-adhesive film, on paper, in pictures, there is a manual for working with self-adhesive film. Separate the paper from the self-adhesive foil approximately 5 cm, then apply the self-adhesive foil to the surface and glue the separated edge. Then, slowly and evenly pull the paper off the rest of the adhesive tape with one hand. Use your other hand to smooth the self-adhesive film with a soft towel. It is necessary to smooth from the center to the edges to avoid the formation of air bubbles. If such bubbles still remain in some places, then they should be pierced with a needle, carefully releasing air from under the self-adhesive film.
If the self-adhesive foil is not adhered correctly, the new self-adhesive foil, which can be adjusted, is only permanently adhered after a few hours, so that the self-adhesive foil can be removed from the solid substrate and re-applied.
If you need to paste over, for example, a round table, you should keep in mind the following technique: the self-adhesive film is heated with an ordinary hand-held hairdryer. After that, it is very easy to bend it and glue it from the inside.
Smooth corners and edges (eg book covers). In this case, it is best to cut the protruding corners of the self-adhesive tape at an angle of 45 degrees, and then bend and glue.
To obtain clean edges, smooth the self-adhesive film around the edges several times with your thumb - then the self-adhesive film will fit exactly along the edge.
When gluing several overlapping panels, an allowance of about 1.5 cm is taken into account. When gluing end-to-end, one panel overlaps the other, but the edges are not pressed tightly. The superimposed edges of the self-adhesive film are cut with a metal knife along a ruler, and the cut strips are removed. The joints can be decorated with a colored tape or border glued on top.
In case the self-adhesive film adheres too quickly, sprinkle the surface with powder or talcum powder. In this case, the self-adhesive tape will not adhere so quickly, which will allow it to be displaced to the desired position. If bubbles appear, pierce the self-adhesive tape with a needle or pin and release the air.
Another type of finishing materials, the best base for which is oil paint, is liquid wallpaper. The first liquid wallpaper appeared on the CIS construction market in the early 90s. And in 1996 they already became a real hit - brought from France, Japan and Turkey, they were considered almost the most prestigious and expensive finishing materials.
In its original state, the wallpaper looks like small, snow-white sawdust. They are sold in cardboard boxes. They include a dry composite material impregnated with glue. They are prepared by adding warm water to this mixture. The mass diluted with water should stand for 10 -15 minutes and swell. A dye of the desired color is added to this mass, everything is mixed and the wallpaper is ready for use. Next is the process of applying this material to the walls. When applying the composite, you can use a spatula, roller, spray gun with a pressure of 0.4 - 0.5 MPa. After applying to the walls and drying, liquid wallpaper is somewhat similar in appearance to a structure slightly similar to fine, but very hard foam. They are environmentally friendly, have absorbing, insulating properties. They can perfectly decorate a glazed balcony. In the process of applying to the walls, they can be given a pattern using knurling.
Liquid wallpaper is fundamentally different from ordinary ones. They are not sold in rolls, like traditional wallpaper, but packed in plastic bags. In fact, it is a mixture of natural cotton or cellulose fibers, dyes and adhesives. It is enough to shift the contents of the bag with a certain amount of water - and "the product is ready to use." The choice of colors is extremely large - from snow-white to delicate spring and bright summer colors. If processed silk fibers are added to the mixture, liquid wallpaper will look like fabric on the wall. There are even wallpapers with golden threads. What is good about liquid wallpaper? Firstly, they do not require perfect alignment of the walls, because the composition closes small cracks and other surface defects. Liquid wallpaper fills the gaps in the places where platbands, plinths, frames, sockets and switches fit. And they have no seams. In addition, liquid wallpapers do not collect dust and serve as excellent sound insulation. And yet, which is also very important, liquid wallpaper "breathes".
When carrying out work, first a lump of wallpaper is glued to the wall by hand, and then it rolls out like dough in different directions with a roller. You can remove the wallpaper from the wall if you wet it with water, then you can again apply it to the wall by rolling it out with a roller. You can apply to the wall and remove them from the wall several times, the main thing is not to wash the glue that is part of the liquid wallpaper with water.
Externally, liquid wallpaper applied to the wall resembles plain paper with a slight relief or fleecy fabric. But keep in mind that the texture of the wallpaper applied to the wall will differ from that shown in the manufacturers' catalogs on samples. The fact is that the distinct texture of the latter is provided by a small amount of water added to the dry mixture during their manufacture. In practice, more water is added, so the surface will be less embossed.
In general, the material is good because it creates a continuous seamless coating, filling the gaps in the places where platbands, frames, skirting boards, switches and sockets fit, hides small defects and cracks.
However, liquid wallpaper has more than just advantages. For example, they are not suitable for finishing damp rooms, such as bathrooms and kitchens, as they absorb moisture too easily. However, additional coating with acrylic or latex varnish will preserve the appearance of the finish here too. Moreover, in rooms with too high humidity, the wallpaper is covered with two layers of varnish, where the humidity is less than one. How will this affect the quality characteristics of the walls? The heat and sound insulation properties of the wallpaper will, of course, be significantly reduced. But every cloud has a silver lining: on the other hand, they can be wiped with a damp sponge. In addition, this finish will last longer, and you will not have to remove it the next time you repair it.