Does a city apartment need additional water purification? There are at least two arguments "for".
Firstly, water for municipal water supply is treated only from the most dangerous contaminants (and this is done with the help of chlorine, which itself is dangerous because of its toxicity). Secondly, public utilities care first of all about the quality of water at the exit from treatment facilities - but passing through many kilometers of communications, it can get secondary pollution.
It turns out that municipal treatment is not a panacea, and you need to purify water to drinkable quality yourself. And there is something to cleanse.
Consumption of water with increased hardness leads to salt deposits. The increased content of manganese is bad for the skeletal system. Excess iron leads to liver disease, increases the risk of heart attacks and impairs fertility.
How not to think about it!
In addition, when using untreated water, not only our precious health suffers, but also expensive imported sanitary ware - first of all, jacuzzi, spa and showers. Limescale builds up small holes in nozzles and showerheads. Calcium and magnesium salts form scale when exposed to high temperatures. But it is scale that is the cause of 90% of breakdowns of water heating equipment.
Everything is clear: water needs to be filtered. Water filters are coarse, fine and biological. Moreover, if fine filters "work" for people, then coarse filters are more necessary for good plumbing. For example, ceramic taps, which are now so popular, are designed only for purified water.
"Biological" filters are always an addition to the already installed fine filters.
All coarse filters are arranged in the same way: inside them, along the course of water, there is a mesh for cutting off large fractions (sand, rust, etc.). They are installed on each "incoming" pipe at the beginning of the distribution - the distribution of the water supply to the bathroom, kitchen, toilet, etc.
All coarse filters have taps. They extend the life of the filter. If it is clogged, you can always turn off the water, unscrew the drain and clean the sump. This is done in the following cases:
1. After turning on / off the water.
2. As it gets clogged.
3. For prevention - every three months.
If you have a new apartment, there is no need to worry about taps: according to Moscow city planning standards, a coarse filter is already included in the package.
And if the house was built a long time ago? Then you can buy such a filter yourself. They are inexpensive, costing from 40 rubles (in the market) to 100 (in specialized stores). Often sold with a crane, which costs about 120 rubles.
In addition, on sale you can see small nozzles on the faucet that purify water. Don't be deceived in your expectations, cheap "miracle filters" are just ordinary coarse filters. It makes sense to put such mud collectors on taps when there is no way to touch the pipes themselves.
Now about fine filters. They are single-functional and multifunctional. Single-function ones get rid of:
- salts of heavy metals.
Multifunctional perform several functions at once.
Nowadays, fontanel filters with charcoal or silver ions have become very popular - there is a large selection on any market. They are convenient, easy to use and inexpensive. However, one should not expect any supernatural results from them.
To choose a really good filter, first of all, you need to understand how it works.
Any fine filter must have an inlet and outlet that is not directly connected. Through the inlet, water enters the flask (note that all flasks are transparent!) And accumulates there, after which it passes through the filter and pours out through the outlet. As you can see, everything is pretty simple.
Fine filters are of two types: woven and mineral.
Woven filters are a cylinder on which a special bundle or rope is wound. It serves to retain crystals of salts not dissolved in water (for example, chlorine), metal oxides and some chemical additives (most of them are added to hot water to keep it at a temperature longer). When the fabric on the drum changes color, it must either be replaced with a new one or cleaned - for this it is poured with warm water and boiled until it turns white.
Mineral filters are a mesh cylinder filled with mineralized crumbs. They also remove salts and chemical additives from water. The drum changes (the old one is thrown away) when plaque forms on the walls.
Adhesive filters promise deeper water purification: some of them do not allow even fractions dissolved in liquid to pass through, reacting with them.
The more reactions occur inside the drum, the more its color changes. Therefore, it is easy to trace when the filter is replaced. However, you need to be especially careful with these filters. You can not install it where the owners rarely visit - for example, in the country. It is necessary to strictly follow all the recommendations given in the instructions, and change the drum in time. Otherwise, you can get very poisoned.
If you live in an apartment building, the fine filter drums must be replaced in the following cases:
1. Once a quarter, unless otherwise specified in the instructions;
2. During hot water activation / deactivation.
Multifunctional filters last the longest - up to six months.
The cost of fine filters ranges from 400 rubles (Russian production) and more. Imported filters are, of course, more expensive. However, ours, despite not always being presentable, often turn out to be more reliable.
Biological protection filters have appeared not so long ago, but have already gained popularity. They purify water almost completely, even killing viruses and bacteria. These filters are placed last, after the main fine filter.
All of these types of filters are used mainly in apartment buildings. If you need to install filters in a cottage or private house, it is better to choose a filter system (this is the name of a combination of several filters in one device). Of course, instead of the system, you can install two coarse filters and, for example, a woven fine filter, but any seller will advise you not to do this - too often you will have to change drums and clean the filters using taps.
Everything is already provided in the system. Imported models, as a rule, self-clean, and when buying a Russian-made system, you should pay attention to this. Filter systems operate in automatic mode and may not change for up to a year, depending on the quality of the water.
It is best to choose systems with an accumulator - a special water tank, where it settles for some time. The larger the house, the larger the reservoir should be. If the tank is heated, this is an additional plus: when the water is heated, it expands. In this case, salts of heavy metals are deposited on the surface of the tank and then removed by the system. Thus, the water becomes cleaner.
The difference between our and imported systems is small, and it is mainly in the price. So if the set of functions suits you, you can safely take domestic filters.
Text: Anna Morozova