Video: Thermal Insulation Materials For The Floor
2023 Author: Douglas Hoggarth | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:23
Everyone wants to live in a warm house, but not every building meets the thermal insulation standards. Heat conservation is a serious matter. Entire research institutes are struggling with the problems of materials development, their classification and application methods.
One thing is for sure: there is no universal insulation. Just as there is no universal "recipe" for the use of existing materials. What kind of insulation to take, how and in what quantities to install - it all depends on climatic conditions, operating conditions, on the design in which this material is used. Cost also plays an important role.
WHAT AND HOW WE TESTED
In our test, we decided to present different types of heaters used for thermal insulation of the floor along the logs. It is worth making a reservation: we do not consider industrial buildings, as well as rooms with high humidity.
Comparing different types of materials is quite difficult, so we set the goal: firstly, to check their technical characteristics and, secondly, to show the "capabilities" of each. Conventionally, materials can be divided by structure - into fibrous, cellular and porous, and by shape - into mats, plates, rolls and bulk.
Eight heat-insulating materials were selected for the test: fibrous - mineral (basalt) wool Rockwool "Light Butts", glass wool Ursa, cellulose wool "Ekovata"; cellular - crosslinked polyethylene foam (PPE) "Izolon", uncrosslinked polyethylene foam (NPE) "Energo-flex", "Penoizol", "Expanded polystyrene"; porous - expanded clay.
Стекловата Ursa П-17 была предоставлена московским представительством фирмы Ursa, целлюлозная вата "Эковата" - компанией "Эковата", НПЭ "Энергофлекс" - фирмой "Эст". Минеральную вату Rockwool, "Пенополистирол" и "Пеноизол" мы покупали у официальных дилеров, а керамзит и ППЭ "Изолон" - на специализированных строительных рынках.
Insulation tests were carried out by specialists in the accredited laboratory "Aviation testing" JSC "Giproniiaviaprom" in Moscow in accordance with GOST 17177-94 "Materials and products for building thermal insulation. Test methods", GOST 9758-86 "Porous inorganic fillers for construction work. Test methods", GOST 7076 -99 "Building materials and products. Methods for determining thermal conductivity and thermal resistance in a stationary thermal regime". The compliance of the presented products with the requirements of TU (technical conditions) and GOSTs was checked, which are different for each material and are presented in the general table.
1. Appearance. In general, a presentable appearance is not necessary for thermal insulation products - they will be hidden inside the structure. However, the study of defects gives an idea of what kind of damage should be feared during transportation and work with this or that material.
The essence of the control was to visually inspect the products and measure the detected defects. We searched for holes, tears, punctures, cracks in fibrous insulation and measured them with a ruler (with an error of no more than ± 0.5 mm). In the case of the honeycomb, the depth of the chipped or dullness of the ribs and corners was determined using a folding rule and a ruler.
In our case, flaws were found only in expanded polystyrene plates in the form of chipped corners.
2. Linear dimensions and geometric correctness. For soft fibrous products, a slight deviation of the length and width from the declared values is a small problem: such a heater is still pre-pressed during installation. But the stiffer the material, the more important the shape and size play - the stronger the deviations, the more difficult it is to lay it back to back and avoid cold bridges.
As for the thickness, the "shortage" in this parameter is the loss of thermal resistance. A small "overkill" is not terrible, but the more significant it is, the more likely problems with installation.
3. Density. One of the most important characteristics that determines the choice of material, since it is she who is "responsible" for the pressure of the insulation on the floor structure. The smaller it is, the lower the load with the corresponding volume.
All tested thermal insulation materials, with the exception of expanded clay gravel, have a fairly low density (10.4-54.0 kg / m3). Bulk density of expanded clay - 390 kg / m3 (with a thickness of 100 mm, the load will be 39 kg / m2, which is almost 39 times higher than the load from expanded polystyrene plates of the same thickness).
Humidity and water absorption. Moisture trapped in the pores of the material significantly increases its thermal conductivity, since this characteristic of water is 25 times greater than that of air. Consequently, the heat-shielding properties of the insulation largely depend on its abilities: firstly, to collect moisture from the air (natural humidity), and secondly, to absorb and retain water in direct contact with it (water absorption). Depending on these characteristics, some materials can be used as hydro and vapor barrier, while others must be protected from a dangerous neighborhood.
Recall that the vapor barrier is designed to protect the insulation from water vapor generated in the interior as a result of human activity - washing, cooking, cleaning. Waterproofing protects it in direct contact with water. Recommendations for the use of steam and water protection depend on the specific conditions, design and insulation.
* Natural humidity was determined as the ratio of the sample masses before and after drying in an oven at a temperature of 105 ± 5 degrees Celsius. For fibrous products, samples weighing 5.0 ± 0.1 g were taken, for cellular products - "flaps" with dimensions of 50x50 mm, for expanded clay - a volume of 3 liters.
* Water absorption. Samples for testing were prepared in a special way. Pieces of 100x100 mm or 50x50 mm with a thickness equal to the nominal thickness of the product were cut out of fibrous and cellular products, dried to constant weight and cooled. Then they were placed in a container on a mesh stand, fixed with a load, filled with water (22 ± 5 degrees Celsius) and left for 24 hours. Expanded clay was also dried and cooled, but kept in a container with water (in accordance with GOST 9758-86) for only an hour. After "bathing" they were weighed and the "gain" due to the absorbed moisture was determined.
5. Strength. There are no special strength requirements for thermal insulation for floors on logs, since the insulation is not subjected to a direct load. The strength must be such that it can withstand transportation and installation.
For different materials and strength tests are different: fibrous insulation is tested for compressibility; cellular and expanded clay - for compressive strength (according to different methods). For cellular boards, bending strength is also determined.
* Compressibility of fibrous insulation. Fiberglass and basalt wool were checked. Square specimens 100x100 mm were cut from a standard thickness sheet. They were pressed with 500 Pa for 5 minutes and then the thickness was measured. In the next 5 minutes, the load was increased to 2000 Pa and the thickness of the sample was measured again.
* The compressive strength of cellular insulators was determined for Izolon, Penoizol, Penopolystyrene and Energoflex. It characterizes the ability of a material to "resist" compressive loads. The larger this parameter, the more pressure the insulation can withstand.
During the tests, the material was slowly squeezed until it flattened by 10%, while the "force" of the press was measured.
* Ultimate strength in bending was determined for cellular boards "Penoizola" and "Expanded polystyrene". Each sample was placed on two supports - parallel to each other metal rods with a diameter of 6 mm, and on top, in the middle, was placed the same push, transferring the load. Then, the test element was loaded evenly, without jolts. The load at which the "fracture" occurred is the ultimate strength in bending.
* Strength of expanded clay was determined according to GOST 9758-86. It was poured into a cylinder 10 cm high and squeezed until the loading rod dropped by 2 cm. The strength was determined by the amount of effort required to do this.
6. Thermal conductivity - the property of transferring heat from one surface to another - is one of the most important characteristics for insulation. It depends on it how much material needs to be put into the structure to achieve a heat-saving effect.
To measure it, a flat sample was dried to constant mass and placed in a stationary heat flux so that the large faces were perpendicular to the rays of the flux. The ISK-U device was used to determine the thermal resistance of the insulation. The thermal conductivity was calculated by dividing the sample thickness by the thermal resistance.
BTW, ABOUT THE NORMS
The basic requirements for the thermal resistance of buildings are determined by SNiP II-3-79 * (developed in 1979 and amended in 1995).
For buildings whose construction began after January 1, 2000, the requirements are as follows (figures are calculated for the climatic zone of Moscow): floors in contact with an unheated room (basement or attic) must provide a thermal resistance of at least 4.16 m2K / W, and those located over a passage or an arch - at least 4.7 m2K / W. More stringent requirements in the second case are associated with the fact that due to the constant air circulation under the ceiling, heat goes away faster. To achieve these values, using, for example, only expanded clay concrete (thermal conductivity 0.47 W / mK), you need to make an overlap with a thickness of almost 2 m in the first case and 2.2 m in the second case.
In earlier buildings, the requirements are softer:
2.50 m2K / W for a ceiling above the basement;
2.85 m2K / W - over an arch or passageway.
Ceilings over heated rooms (between floors) are not required to be additionally insulated. Another thing is if the task is to make a room (for example, a nursery) as warm as possible, then the question is, what height lags you can afford - in other words, how many centimeters from the ceiling height you are ready to "sacrifice".
HOW TO "FIND" HEAT RESISTANCE?
It is difficult to give specific recommendations for insulation, since they depend on the design of not only the floor, but also the building as a whole, as well as on the properties of the specific insulation. An approximate calculation of how to provide thermal resistance in an old house according to the new standards is as follows: the difference in thermal resistance (for the climatic zone of Moscow - 1.7 m2K / W in the case of overlapping above the basement and 1.85 m2K / W - above an arch or passage) multiply by the thermal conductivity of the insulation material. We will get the required thickness of the insulation.
Rockwool "Light Butts"
Stone wool slabs (JSC "Mineralnaya Vata", Russia)
PURPOSE: sound and heat insulation of light vertical and inclined walls, attics, interior partitions and inter-floor ceilings, as well as roof structures.
PROPERTIES (based on test results): density - 38 kg / cubic meter; thermal conductivity - 0.036 W / mK; compressibility at a load of 2000 Pa - 21.4%, water absorption by volume at full immersion for 24 hours - 16.1%, moisture by weight - 0.5%.
RAW MATERIALS: basalt fiber, binders.
DIMENSIONS: plate (LxWxT) - 1000x600x50 mm.
Mineral wool is prepared by melting basalt rock at a temperature of 1500 degrees Celsius. The mass is pulled into the finest fibers and interlaced with each other, adding synthetic binders. As such, use is made of compositions of water-soluble synthetic resins, modifying, hydrophobizing, dedusting and other additives.
Stone wool is certified by the Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Russian Federation, as well as by the Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia as a non-combustible material.
APPEARANCE: mineral wool slabs with a chaotic arrangement of gray fibers with a greenish tint. No external defects were found.
SIZES: determined from five samples. Deviations in width and thickness do not exceed 5 mm, deviations in length reach 1 cm. All values are within the permissible limits (maximum deviation of length and width is 10 mm, thickness is 5 mm).
DENSITY: this material is not the lightest - 38 kg / cubic meter, but if it is used to insulate floors on logs, there is no need to worry about excessive pressure on the floor.
WATER ABSORPTION: the value obtained in the laboratory should not be compared with that given by the manufacturer, as these two values correspond to different test methods. Therefore, we will simply denote the results. In our test, with full immersion of the material for 24 hours, the volumetric water absorption was 16.1% (at the rate for mineral wool 20% when tested in accordance with GOST 17177-94).
The value of this parameter, indicated in the passport for "Light Butts" products in accordance with TU 5762-004-45757203-99, was determined according to the European method with full immersion for 2 hours; it was 1.5% by volume.
HUMIDITY: low (0.5%) - indicates that Light Butts slabs hardly absorb moisture from the air. With normal air humidity, a kilogram of material contains only 5 g of water.
COMPRESSIBILITY: 21.4% - not the highest value, which is confirmed by the manufacturer's recommendation: do not subject Light Butts boards to significant loads. And they will withstand transportation and laying.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: 0.036 W / mK - a good result and the declared one - no more than 0.036 W / mK - corresponds. In terms of heat-saving properties, 10 cm "Light Butts" are equivalent to 52 cm of pine boards or 1.3 m of expanded clay concrete.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): in order to "get" the thermal resistance of the floor of the old house to the new standard, it takes about 60 mm of material for the room above the basement, and about 65 mm for the room above the arch. A square meter of floor will cost 74 and 80 rubles. respectively (November 2003).
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Thermal conductivity of Light Butts is one of the lowest among the tested materials. Stone wool slabs have a relatively low density and low moisture content. They are capable of resisting compressive loads.
The material is suitable for warming floors along logs, it is advisable to use it in cases where thickening of thermal insulation is required, for example, when installing a floor on the ground.
Slabs of glass staple fiber (JSC "Flyderer-Chudovo", Russia)
PURPOSE: thermal insulation of enclosing structures of residential, public and industrial buildings, stoves, pipelines, household and industrial refrigerators, equipment, apparatus, vehicles; use in soundproof and sound-absorbing structures, as well as a fire-separating layer. Operating temperature range - from -60 to +270 degrees Celsius.
PROPERTIES (based on test results): density - 17.2 kg / cubic meter; thermal conductivity not less than 0.038 W / mK; compressibility at a load of 2000 Pa - 38.6%; water absorption at full immersion for 24 hours - 40.8%; moisture by weight - 1.2%.
RAW MATERIALS: soda, quartz sand, alumina, dolomite, various additives.
DIMENSIONS: plate (LxWxT) - 1250x600x100 mm.
The raw materials for glass wool are soda, quartz sand, alumina, dolomite and various additives. The mixture is melted to liquid glass and drawn into the finest fibers, a binder is sprayed on them and reheated. The resulting mass is cut to size. Recently, in order to reduce water absorption, all Ursa fiberglass products have been treated with a water repellent compound during the production process.
The material is approved by the Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Russian Federation, has certificates of conformity of the Gosstroy of the Russian Federation, the Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, conformity in vibroacoustics, as well as an acoustic test report of the Research Institute of Building Physics.
APPEARANCE: yellow fiberglass boards with horizontal grain. Visual inspection revealed no external defects.
SIZES: control was carried out on six plates. The deviations are insignificant - within 6 mm - and are close to the norm (5-10 mm). True, for a material with a low density, this does not play a significant role, since during installation, in order to achieve a snug fit to the structural elements, it is slightly pre-pressed.
DENSITY: Determined on whole slabs. It was 17.2 kg / cubic meter, which is quite consistent with the declared parameter from 16 to 18 kg / cubic meter.
Generally, not very dense (less than 25 kg / m3) mats and fiberglass plates are recommended to be used where they are not subject to stress. Insulation of floors along the logs is just such a case.
You also don't have to worry about the pressure of the insulation on the floor - at such a low density it will be negligible.
WATER ABSORPTION: during research in the laboratory "Giproniyaaviaprom" with full immersion for 24 hours, it was 40.8% by volume. The water absorption, measured in the NIISF laboratory with full immersion of the sample with an additional load for 24 hours, is 2.2%.
However, for thermal insulation of floors along logs, this indicator is not decisive, since the operating conditions and floor structure do not imply direct contact of the insulation with water.
HUMIDITY: determined on five weighed portions from three different plates. The value of 1.2% is very small, which means that under normal conditions the P-17 slabs hardly absorb moisture from the surrounding air.
STRENGTH (compressibility): in order to determine the compressibility of the fiber insulation, it was methodically pressed two times for five minutes, acting at 500 Pa and 2000 Pa, respectively. As a result, it was established: the material is easy to tamp by 38.6%, which, in general, is within 60% of the norm. Such "pliability" - a consequence of the low density of the slabs - does not in any way affect the operation of the floor structure along the joists. And for transportation and installation, this resistance to compressive loads is quite enough.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: according to TU 5763-002-00287697-97, used by the manufacturer, should not exceed 0.039 W / mK. The result of our tests turned out to be even less - 0.038 W / mK, which is only a plus for the insulation. By the way, in terms of heat-saving properties, 10 cm of Ursa P-17 cotton wool is equivalent to almost half a meter of pine boards or 1.23 m of expanded clay concrete.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): in order to "get" the thermal resistance to the new standards in the rooms of the old house, it will take about 65 mm Ursa P-17, if the basement is "underfoot", and about 70 - when the passage or the arch. A square meter of flooring will eventually cost 66 and 72 rubles. respectively (November 2003).
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: with a thickness of 100 mm, the material provides high thermal resistance, has a low density and, as a result, weakly loads the floor structure.
The boards resist compressive loads with medium deformation. Ursa P-17 material is suitable for thermal insulation of floors along logs both in the case of an overlap between heated rooms, and for thermal insulation of a floor along the ground, on the ground floor or above an unheated basement.
"Cross-linked" expanded polyethylene with a closed-cell structure ("Izhevsk Plastics Plant", Russia)
PURPOSE: heat, sound, hydro and vapor insulation of roofs, walls, foundations, floors, pipelines, air ducts, etc.; It is also used as a shock absorber, elastic sound and vibration insulating cushioning material in the structures of floors and foundations for engineering equipment.
PROPERTIES (based on test results): density - 30.0 kg / cubic meter; thermal conductivity - 0.036 W / mK; compressive strength at 10% deformation - 0.02 MPa; water absorption at full immersion for 24 hours - 0.6%; humidity - 0%. RAW MATERIAL COMPOSITION: foamed polyethylene. DIMENSIONS: roll 1400 mm wide and 10 mm thick.
Izolon is manufactured by foaming high-pressure polyethylene with the addition of fire retardants. "PPE" (cross-linked polyethylene foam) means that when the raw material is foamed, the material not only acquires a closed-cell structure, but is also modified at the molecular level: a so-called cross-linked or reticulated molecular structure is formed. This is reflected not only in improving the thermal insulation and strength characteristics, but also in the price - the material is by no means cheap.
The insulation is certified by the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation and the Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.
APPEARANCE: rolled elastic material of white color, closed-cell structure, consisting of two layers connected by lamination. External defects - shells and swellings - were not found.
DIMENSIONS: deviation in width was 1.0 mm, and in thickness 0.1 mm. Such values correspond to dimensional tolerances (in width - 5.0 mm, in thickness - 1.5 mm) for this type of material.
DENSITY: 30.0 kg / cubic meter lies within the limits declared by the manufacturer - the range of 33 ± 5 kg / cubic meter. The insulation is light, almost does not load the floor structure. For example, a square meter of Izolon weighs only 300 g.
WATER ABSORPTION: less than a percentage, which is well within the norm (no more than 1%). The proximity of water to this insulation is actually not scary.
HUMIDITY: zero. This means that Izolon does not absorb moisture from the surrounding air at all. In combination with low water absorption, this property allows the use of insulation, among other things, as a vapor and waterproofing layer.
STRENGTH (in compression): at 10% deformation is relatively low - 0.02 MPa, however, it is quite enough for transportation and installation. However, you should not place heavy objects on the material.
Technical conditions regulate the strength at 25% deformation of 0.035 MPa, according to this figure, we can say that our test showed a very close result to the officially declared one.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: 0.036 W / mK - one of the lowest in our test (respectively, thermal resistance is among the highest) and fully corresponds to the range indicated by the manufacturer - 0.036-0.037 W / mK. According to its thermal insulation characteristics, 10 cm of Izolona are equivalent to 80 cm of expanded clay concrete or 65 cm of pine boards.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): in order to increase the thermal resistance of the floor of the "old" house to the value required by the "modified" SNiP II-3-79 *, about 60 mm of material is needed for the room located above the unheated basement, and about 65 mm - for the room above the arch. A square meter of floor insulation will cost $ 27.6 and $ 30, respectively. It may be expensive to insulate with Izolon alone, but taking into account water absorption and humidity in the floor structure, it can be used as an additional layer in combination with other materials in this direction.
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: the main parameter of the insulation - thermal conductivity - is one of the lowest among the tested samples for Izolon. This is the best parameter in our test. Another "plus" is that it has a low density. True, and not too high compressive strength. The material has zero moisture content and low water absorption, as a result of which it can be used as a hydro and vapor barrier layer.
It is most expedient to use Izolon in floor structures on logs where the space does not allow to significantly raise the floor or there is no need for "massive" insulation - thin centimeter rolls are very useful here. It is also possible to make a multi-layer "cake" out of them, but such a pleasure is not cheap.
Expanded clay gravel
Artificial porous material ("Klinstroydetal", Klin, Russia)
PURPOSE: used for the installation of heat and sound insulating backfills of building structures as a filler for lightweight concrete.
PROPERTIES (based on test results): bulk density - from 390 kg / cubic meter; thermal conductivity - 0.079 W / mK; compressive strength in the cylinder - 1.4 MPa; water absorption by volume at full immersion - 24.0%; humidity - 9.0%.
RAW MATERIAL COMPOSITION: clay containing iron oxides and organic impurities.
DIMENSIONS: granule fraction 5-20 mm.
Expanded clay gravel is an artificial porous material with a cellular structure with a predominant content of closed pores obtained as a result of swelling of clay rocks during accelerated firing.
APPEARANCE: rounded and cylindrical granules of brown or red-brown color.
SIZES: When sifting in a sieve, fractions from 5 mm to 20 mm were found. According to GOST 9757-90, the main fractions are 0-5, 5-10 or 10-20 mm in size, a wider spread is allowed only upon agreement between the consumer and the manufacturer. The explanation for the results obtained can be as follows: when filling in bags, the seller could mix a new batch with the remains of another, larger or smaller fraction.
DENSITY (bulk): the density of expanded clay is determined by weighing the material placed in a container, and dividing the resulting value by the volume of the container. That is why the density is called bulk. In our case, its value of 390 kg / m3 corresponds to the M400 brand.
With a thickness of expanded clay 100 mm, the load on the structure will be at least 39 kg / m2, therefore it is recommended to take into account the maximum permissible load on the floor slab for each specific case in order to avoid unpleasant surprises.
WATER ABSORPTION: not regulated by GOST. Various reference books indicate a range of 10 to 25%. As a result of testing, 24.0% was obtained. The value is significant, therefore, with a close "water" neighborhood, good waterproofing will be required: after all, an increase in the moisture content of the material sharply reduces its thermal insulation properties. Steam and waterproofing are especially important when using expanded clay for thermal insulation on the ground, and in "home" conditions, the decision about its need in each case is made individually.
HUMIDITY: not regulated by GOST 9757-90. However, as a porous material, expanded clay tends to pick up moisture from the air. True, 9% is not that big.
STRENGTH: the granules are placed in a metal cylinder and loaded from above, as a result of which expanded clay is destroyed. Strength is determined depending on the applied efforts. The tested material withstood 1.4 MPa, which meets the requirements of GOST for the P50 strength grade.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: GOST 9757-90 also does not regulate the thermal conductivity of expanded clay gravel, however, in the appendix to SNiP II-3-79 * ("Technical indicators of building materials and structures") for expanded clay of M400 grade, the thermal conductivity of 0.12 W / mK is given. In our test, the value is 1.5 times less - 0.079 W / mK, which is only a plus for thermal insulation properties.
Nevertheless, its use requires a sufficiently large margin in height: in order to meet the requirements of SNiP II-3-79 * to the thermal resistance of floors above the basement, a layer 33 cm thick will be required. That is why this material is best suited for thermal insulation along the ground, when there is ample space under the ground floor.
If compared with other materials, then 10 cm of this insulation is equivalent to a 25-cm board thickness or 60 cm of expanded clay concrete slab.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): to increase the thermal resistance of the floor structure of the "old" house to the value regulated by the updated SNiP, 134 mm is needed for rooms above the basement, and 146 mm - above an arch or passage. A square meter of insulation will cost about 67 rubles. in the first and about 73 rubles. in the second case (November 2003).
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: expanded clay gravel provides proper thermal insulation only with a large layer thickness. So using it in floor insulation works, for example, in typical balconies and loggias, does not give the desired effect.
The material tested by us corresponds to the M400 grade in terms of density, and P50 in strength, which is fully consistent with the requirements of GOST 9757-90. However, the result of studying the grain composition of expanded clay does not meet the standards.
The material has a negligible percentage of moisture. Well suited for floor insulation on the ground or as a "leveling" when working with subfloors.
Urea foam (OOO Dunstroy, Zelenograd, Russia)
PURPOSE: use as a middle heat-insulating layer in enclosing structures; insulation of floors, walls, ceilings and roofs of residential and industrial buildings.
PROPERTIES (based on test results): density - 17.0 kg / cubic meter; thermal conductivity - 0.037 W / mK; compressive strength at 10% deformation - 0.01 MPa; bending strength - 0.01 MPa; water absorption by volume at full immersion for 24 hours - 7.4%; humidity - 17.4%.
RAW MATERIAL COMPOSITION: polymer resin, foaming agent.
DIMENSIONS: plate (LxWxT) - 600x500x50 mm.
"Penoizol" is made without pressing and without heat treatment from a polymer resin (urea-formaldehyde) with the addition of modifiers that improve physical and technical characteristics. However, toxicity tests show that after the completion of the polymerization process and the initial drying phase, the release of free formaldehyde does not exceed the maximum permissible concentration (MPC).
"Penoizol" refers to moderately flammable, moderately flammable materials with low smoke-generating ability.
APPEARANCE: white plates, no external defects were found. The insulation has a loose structure, therefore, it must be treated with care during transportation, storage and installation. In addition, when working with it, a small crumb "flies".
SIZES: control of linear dimensions was carried out on five samples. The scatter is significant: in length - 39 mm, in width - 24 mm. The thickness ranges from 3.4 mm. Such large deviations are due to the fact that the boards are molded by hand: the foam is poured into the molds and left to dry. And during the drying process, the material shrinks.
DENSITY: 17.0 kg / cubic meter is a small value, so the load on the structure will be small and special calculations will not be required (especially if the floor is a concrete slab).
WATER ABSORPTION: low, 7.4%. Whether or not to arrange additional waterproofing depends on where the material is used.
HUMIDITY: 17.4% - the highest among all materials tested by us (although it is within the normal range - no more than 20%). This means that "Penoizol" absorbs moisture well from the air. Even under normal conditions, one cubic meter of material contains approximately 3 liters of water. The conclusion is obvious: take into account the operating conditions and apply adequate measures to "protect" it. Otherwise, an increase in the moisture content of the insulation will negatively affect its thermal conductivity.
STRENGTH (in compression and in bending): there is nothing surprising in the fact that these characteristics are rather low (ultimate strength in bending - 0.01 MPa, in compression at 10% deformation - the same 0.01 MPa), because Penoizol is positioned precisely as a material for structures in which it is not subject to stress. These include floors on logs.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: 0.037 W / mK lies within the declared value of 0.028-0.037 W / mK. A layer of "Penoizol" of 10 cm in terms of heat-saving properties corresponds to 50 cm of a pine board or almost 127 cm of a slab of expanded clay concrete.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): in order for the thermal insulation of the floor in a house built according to SNiP of 79 to comply with the current standards, it is necessary to put 63 mm "Penoizol" in the room located above the basement, and 69 mm - above the passage or arch … It will cost 34 rubles. for 1 square meter of floor in the first case and 38 rubles. - in the second (November 2003).
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: the material provides a good level of thermal insulation, has a slight load on the structure. The moisture content of the Penoizola boards turned out to be the highest among the tested materials. Water absorption is small, the strength is also low, in addition, the insulation requires a particularly careful attitude when working with it, since it has a loose structure. It is advisable to use such a heater in cases where it is necessary to thicken the insulation, for example, when installing floors on the ground.
Expanded polystyrene PSB-S-15-U
Rigid foamed thermoplastic ("Mosstroy-31", Russia)
PURPOSE: thermal insulation of enclosing structures - walls, roofs, ceilings, floors, as well as industrial equipment in the absence of contact with the interior and the temperature of the insulated surface is not higher than 80 degrees Celsius.
PROPERTIES (based on test results): density - 10.4 kg / cubic meter; thermal conductivity - 0.039 W / mK; compressive strength at 10% deformation - 0.06 MPa; bending strength - 0.08 MPa; water absorption by volume at full immersion for 24 hours - 2.8%; humidity - 2.4%.
RAW MATERIALS: polystyrene, dry air.
DIMENSIONS: plate (LxWxT) - 1000x1000x20 mm.
Expanded polystyrene is a rigid foamed thermoplastic consisting of fused granules with evenly distributed microscopic dense cells filled with air. They are made of suspension expandable polystyrene with the addition of a fire retardant - this is indicated by the letter "C" in the marking.
Expanded polystyrene is certified by the Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Russian Federation. The fire service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia classifies it as self-extinguishing, but with a high smoke-generating ability.
APPEARANCE: white honeycomb board. On the surface of two (out of three presented for the test) slabs, five corner bumps with a depth of 3 to 6 mm were found, depressions and bulges were absent.
SIZES: deviations from the shape are insignificant, and the thickness also fits into the standards (deviation is not more than 2 mm). The requirements for the length and width are the same (especially since the plate is square), but on one side there is a deviation of 7 mm, which is 2 mm higher than the norm. However, the dimensions for this material are not a defining characteristic.
DENSITY: the letter "U" in the marking indicates that the density of the insulation is close to the lower limit for this brand, that is, to 10 kg / m3. The obtained value of 10.4 kg / m3 satisfies this condition. The material is the lightest of those tested. When laying it, there is no need to calculate the pressure on the floor: even if the entire floor height (about 3 m) is filled with expanded polystyrene, the load per square meter of floor will be slightly more than 30 kg.
WATER ABSORPTION: 2.8% of the volume at a rate of 3.0%. The use of hydro and vapor barrier is usually optional, but it all depends on the specific operating conditions.
HUMIDITY: the natural moisture content of the material is 2.4% by weight, which confirms its low hygroscopicity.
STRENGTH (in compression and bending): of all tested PSB-S-15-U showed the highest characteristics in these indicators - 0.06 MPa and 0.08 MPa, respectively (and they are completely "normal" - not less than 0, 05 MPa and 0.07 MPa). Of course, breaking off a corner or pushing through a slab by placing something heavy is easy enough. But with care during transportation and installation, problems will not arise.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: 0.039 W / mK, which is also within the normal range (not less than 0.042 W / mK). The "contribution" of a ten-centimeter layer of expanded polystyrene to the thermal insulation of the structure is the same as a pine board 48 cm thick or 1.2 m of expanded clay concrete.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): in order to insulate the "old" floor above the basement, you need a layer of expanded polystyrene about 7 cm. In the room above the arch you will need 7.5 cm. In monetary terms, it will be about 50 rubles. for 1 square meter of insulation (November 2003).
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: has a rather low thermal conductivity, the lightest of the tested, contains a small percentage of moisture and has a low water absorption. Suitable for thermal insulation of floors on joists. When insulating floors located in the immediate vicinity of the cold source, it is recommended to lay them in several layers.
Cellulose wool ("Cherepovets plant of heat-insulating materials", Cherepovets, Russia)
PURPOSE: heat and sound insulation of building structures of residential, public and industrial buildings; use in the reconstruction of existing buildings.
PROPERTIES (according to test results): density - 54.0 kg / m3, thermal conductivity - 0.042 W / mK, humidity - 11.1%.
RAW MATERIAL COMPOSITION: cellulose-wood fiber.
DIMENSIONS: finished products are not formed, packed in pre-pressed form in 15 kg bags.
"Ecowool" is made from waste paper (80%) with the addition of non-volatile antiseptics and fire retardants (20%). The paper is crushed first coarsely and then finely, after which it is mixed with additives in a special hopper. Boron and boric acid are used as antiseptics, the latter plays the role of a fire retardant. When heated, boric compounds release moisture, so that in the event of a fire, the insulation is moistened and retards the spread of fire.
"Ekovata" is certified by the Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision of the Russian Federation, as well as by the Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia as moderately flammable, highly flammable, with a moderate smoke-forming ability.
The heat-shielding properties of the material are higher when it is applied evenly and at the same time loosely. Therefore, it is best to lay such insulation by spraying it with a blower. In this case, the cotton wool penetrates into hard-to-reach recesses and gaps and forms a dense, seamless insulating layer. It can be sprayed in dry or wet-glue form (wetting with water activates the lignin contained in the fibers, which has a "glue" effect). The first method is used for thermal insulation of horizontal surfaces and "box-shaped" structures, the second is mainly used for spraying on walls. Recommended density of application "in floors" on logs - from 35 kg / m3, in walls - up to 70 kg / m3.
The material can also be laid by hand. In this case, before laying it, it must be loosened, since the cotton wool packaged in bags is slightly pre-pressed (for ease of transportation).
APPEARANCE: loose short-fiber material of gray color. It resembles ordinary cotton wool, only with coarser fibers.
DENSITY: Cellulose wadding can be easily loosened and pressed, so its density depends on how tamped it is. The manufacturer's recommended density for manual laying "on the floor" is in the region of 40 kg / cubic meter, and the TU 5768-001-57113637-01 norms allow its spread in the range from 35 to 70 kg / cubic meter.
The laboratory result (54.0 kg / m3) corresponds to some "average" pressing conditions - after the impact of a load of 2 MPa (according to GOST 17177-94). As a rule, cotton wool of this density is laid in inclined structures.
HUMIDITY: with natural air humidity, cellulose wool collects from it 11.1% moisture by weight, which, however, is within the normal range (no more than 12.0%).
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: determined for a material density of 54 kg / m3 - 0.042 W / mK. At a lower density, it is naturally less. However, this value also fits within the limits of TU 5768-001-57113637-01: from 0.039 to 0.047 W / mK. True, according to the test reports of the Research Institute of Construction Physics (NIISF) for 2001 and the Sevzapstroycertification OS for 2003, the thermal conductivity of this material with a density of 50-60 kg / m3 is lower - 0.037-0.038 W / mK. In principle, results may vary from laboratory to laboratory.
A ten-centimeter layer of cellulose wool protects from the cold as effectively as 45 cm of pine wood or 1.1 m of expanded clay concrete.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): it is difficult to make an accurate calculation, because "Ekovatu" can be laid with a higher or lower density, which will determine the thermal conductivity, and, consequently, the layer thickness and cost. When laying in a floor with a density of 40-45 kg / m3. (with a thermal conductivity value of 0.036 W / mK according to the "Sevzapstroycertification" test reports), it will take about 60 mm for a room above the basement and 65 mm for a room above a passage or an arch. In monetary terms, these are 43 and 47 rubles. for 1 square meter of floor (November 2003).
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: "Ekovata" insulation has a low density, low humidity and is able to provide a sufficient level of thermal insulation. Strength tests were not carried out for obvious reasons - cotton wool is cotton wool, and it makes no sense to demand unheard of strength from it.
The material is suitable for thermal insulation of floors along logs. Among other things, it is advisable to use it for thermal insulation of floors on the ground, as well as with large unevenness of the subfloor.
"Uncrosslinked" expanded polyethylene of closed-cell structure (Plant "Lit", Pereslavl-Zalessky, Russia)
PURPOSE: thermal insulation of equipment, heat, sound and vapor insulation of building structures.
PROPERTIES (based on test results): density - 27.3 kg / cubic meter; thermal conductivity - not less than 0.038 W / mK; compressive strength at 10% deformation - 0.01 MPa; water absorption at full immersion for 24 hours - 1.2%; humidity - 0.1%.
RAW MATERIAL COMPOSITION: foamed polyethylene.
DIMENSIONS: roll (W x T) - 1225x20 mm.
"Energoflex" is made of high-pressure polyethylene, foaming it with butane gas. "NPE" stands for "uncrosslinked polyethylene foam" and means that in the finished product the polymer (polyethylene) molecules are not connected with each other. When foaming, a closed-cell structure of the insulation itself is formed, but the molecular structure of polyethylene does not change.
The material is approved by the Ministry of Health of Russia, certified by the Fire Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia as moderately flammable, moderately flammable with a high smoke-generating ability.
In addition, Energoflex has a vibroacoustic certificate from the NIISF acoustic measurements laboratory. It is recommended for use in construction as sound insulation against impact noise.
APPEARANCE: roll-up duplicated (of four layers) gray material of closed-porous structure. External defects - shells and swellings - were not found.
SIZES: deviations in width do not exceed 2 mm, and in thickness - 1.2 mm, which is well within the standards of ± 5 mm and ± 2 mm, respectively.
DENSITY: very low - 27.3 kg / cubic meter, therefore the material does not exert significant load on the floors. It is easy to lift and transport. So, for a single-layer insulation of a room with an area of 10 square meters, you will need about 5.5 kg of Energoflex.
WATER ABSORPTION: very small - a little more than a percent - and, of course, within the normal range (no more than 2%).
HUMIDITY: almost zero - 0.1%. This means that in one 1 kg of material there is only 10 g of water. In combination with low water absorption, this means that the insulation not only does not require additional hydro and vapor barrier, but can itself be used as such.
STRENGTH (in compression): not very high - 0.01 MPa. This is due to the fact that "Energoflex" consists of air "bubbles" separated by thin polyethylene walls, which can be easily destroyed. In the case we are considering, floor insulation along the logs, the material does not carry loads during operation, and for transportation and installation, and such strength is quite enough.
THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY: tests have shown that the thermal conductivity of the material is not less than 0.038 W / mK exactly meets the requirements of technical specifications TU 2244-069-04696843-00. A ten-centimeter layer of material in terms of heat-saving properties is equivalent to 50 cm of pine boards or 123 cm of expanded clay concrete.
CALCULATION (climatic zone of Moscow): in order to insulate the floor in a house built according to the old standards (so that the thermal resistance meets the requirements of SNiP II-3-79 * for "new" houses), 65 mm of Energoflex and 70 mm - for a room above an arch or passage. In monetary terms, this is $ 16.7 and $ 18, respectively, for 1 square meter of floor.
CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: the insulation has a low density, an insignificant percentage of moisture and low water absorption. Compressive strength at 10% linear deformation is comparatively low.
The material is suitable for thermal insulation of floors along logs. Due to its small thickness, it is advisable to use it for floors on floors where significant insulation is not required. "Energoflex" can be used not only as an independent thermal insulation, but also in combination with other heaters as an additional heat, steam and waterproofing layer.