Among the variety of facing materials, the most common is tiles, and in any of its variants. Perhaps the main advantage of the tile is that it is not afraid of moisture and temperature changes. This material seems to be specially created for cladding the walls of the bathroom and kitchen, pool and veranda, terrace, patio. Such material has unlimited possibilities for creative search. Unusual ways of laying out tiles, mosaics, panels, glazed ceramic reliefs will create an original environment around.
Today there is a huge variety of all types of tiles with different patterns and textures. Modern technologies make it possible to produce varieties of tiles that imitate stone, wood, brickwork, etc. The historical plots decorating the tiles take us back to mysterious events far from us. Now it is possible to choose different types of tiles, depending on the purpose of the room being decorated. The most common tiles for cladding are: PVC, glass, ceramic and others.
POLYVINYL CHLORIDE TILES
They are made from amorphous polyvinyl chloride with the addition of a powdered filler in the form of wood flour or talc, a plasticizer and a filler. They are available in sizes 15x15, 20x20 and 30x30 cm and 1-2 mm thick, in various colors and patterns. Such tiles are little affected by various chemical compounds and are waterproof.
They are made from glass waste by a similar technology with the use of various additives. Usually these are tiles of white, blue, blue, beige and green colors, with a diverse range of shades. These tiles are the same size as PVC tiles, with the exception of a thickness of 8 mm. The front side is either matte or shiny. On the reverse side there are reefs two millimeters high. Glass tiles are inferior in their aesthetic appearance to ceramic tiles. However, they are distinguished by increased hardness, strength and water resistance.
Cladding with glass tiles can be considered a fairly economical cladding method. This can be easily verified by comparing glass cladding with cladding, for example, ceramic tiles. Working with glass tiles is much easier, as they are usually larger than glazed tiles.
For large tiles, wooden plugs are pre-installed in the wall, with which the tiles are attached to the wall with screws. In general, glass tiles should not be tiled in areas subject to high temperatures or sunlight. If the wall is cladding located next to the heating devices, then it is better to make it from smaller tiles. Due to this, it becomes possible to deform the cladding under the influence of high temperatures.
If it becomes necessary to drill a tile, then it is better to drip turpentine or kerosene under the drill. They do the same when cutting glass tiles: the tiles are laid on a flat surface, and the place of cutting is moistened with turpentine or kerosene. The corners are slightly rounded during cutting in order to prevent the tiles from cracking.
If it is required to ensure complete waterproofness of the coating, faced with glass tiles, then it is fixed to the surface on polymer-cement mortars.
For fixing large tiles (30x15 cm), it is better to use plastic glue than cement or mixed mortar. This is due to the fact that the plastic glue allows the glass to expand when heated.
Standard ceramic glazed tiles for indoor finishing are available in sizes 20x20.15x15 and 15x7.5 cm, thickness 3-6 mm. The thickness of curly and flat cornice and frieze tiles is usually slightly less. In general, the variation in the thickness of the tiles, as a rule, does not exceed 0.5 mm, and the length and width can vary by no more than 1.5 mm.
The front side of the tiles is a uniformly colored surface, usually white, blue, pink, green, yellow and other colors, evenly covered with a matte glaze. To enhance the reliability of adhesion to the base, grooves are made on the back. Operating conditions impose certain requirements on the properties of tiles, one of the main ones is the minimum value of water absorption, not exceeding sixteen percent. Ceramic tiles can be patterned on individual tiles or with a multi-tile composition.
Recently, a very interesting novelty has appeared on the market of facing materials - polystyrene tiles, which have become widely used for facing internal walls and partitions. It is distinguished by a noticeable lightness in comparison with ceramic tiles and a variety of color finds. At the same time, the strength index of this kind of tiles is very high. In addition, polystyrene tiles are hardly susceptible to weak solutions of acids, alkalis and various disinfectants and cleaning agents.
To ensure strong adhesion to the adhesive mastic and to achieve the rigidity of the tile structure, a sill 0.25 mm high is located along the entire length of the back side, and square corrugations are provided along the entire surface of the tile. When buying tiles, pay attention to the fact that there are no various sags and irregularities on the front side of the tiles. High-quality tiles should be smooth, glossy, free from cracks, scratches and dents. They are available in sizes 30x10, 15x15 and 10x10 cm, thickness 1.25-1.35 mm. The thickness of the tiles can vary by no more than 0.2 mm, and the length and width by 0.5 mm.
The choice of polystyrene tiles for wall decoration is largely dictated by the purpose of the room in which the cladding is carried out, since it is necessary to take into account some of the operational disadvantages of this material. Tiles of this kind have low heat resistance, which significantly limits their use for wall cladding located near heating and heating devices. In addition, they are very short-lived, that is, they age quickly, have low fire resistance and are susceptible to the action of organic solvents.
A very interesting idea today is the idea of using plastic as a cladding. It is a fairly durable material based on vinyl and other polymers. Of great importance when using this kind of materials is that it is "not afraid" of moisture. Thanks to the variety of colors and shapes, plastic can create ideal wood or stone surfaces. In terms of color and texture, plastic, more than any other material, will recreate the atmosphere of a modern minimalist interior.