Ceramic Tile Test

Ceramic Tile Test
Ceramic Tile Test
Video: Ceramic Tile Test
Video: Throwing Test Tiles and Testing Glaze Combinations 2023, February
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Ceramic tiles are not a new facing material. Back in the 12th century BC, it was used to decorate the palace of the Egyptian pharaoh Ramses III, and even then it was practically, like a modern glazed one, with a gold pattern …

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Today, there are other finishing materials, which, however, are unable to displace tiles from our homes. This is because ceramics are beautiful, diverse in shape, color and texture, and at the same time they are durable, moisture resistant and highly hygienic.

How to choose the right tiles for interior wall cladding? No one argues that beauty is the main criterion, and here you need to trust your own taste. But one should be guided not only by appearance. It is extremely important to know the field of application of ceramic products. In order to find out which tile is intended for what, it is good to have an idea of ​​what types of tiles exist in general.

Most manufacturers produce tiles in collections. Usually, they contain background (base) tiles of two colors - for walls and plinths, several types of decors - tiles of the same format as the base one, but with additional ornament or relief, borders and even panels. Increasingly, floor tiles are also included in the collection.

As a rule, the base for wall cladding is made using the technology of double, less often single firing. The floor, on the contrary, is often fired once, less often two. But the production of decorative elements requires additional - third firing.

Double firing (bicottura). The production cycle of tiles of this type includes two firing: the first - to create a ceramic base, and the second - to fix the enamel, which gives it shine and allows you to apply any design pattern, and also protects the ceramic "shard" from moisture. At the same time, the glazed surface is sufficiently resistant to the effects of household detergents, cosmetics and hygiene products. Traditionally enamelled (or glazed) double-fired ceramic tiles are intended for indoor wall cladding.

Single firing (monocotture). The production technology of such tiles is much more complicated than bicottura, because they are made in just one firing cycle. The tiles are pressed, dried, glazed, patterned and sent to the oven. There it gradually heats up, and then gradually cools down. Each firing phase is strictly controlled. As a result, the enamel is securely fixed on the base, sintering with it, and forms a table-strong surface that the resulting tile can be used not only for wall cladding, but also for laying on the floor. In addition to increased strength characteristics, it is highly resistant to household detergents, and some types are also frost-resistant.

Third firing. Collector's series usually come with a large number of decorative elements. Often they differ from the basic ones in shape and color, therefore an additional layer of enamel is applied to them, and the subsequent, third, firing is used to fix the pattern. This, however, does not add strength to them - you need to handle the decors very carefully.

WHAT AND HOW WE TESTED

For our test, 10 types of basic wall glazed ceramic tiles of the 1st grade were selected, worth up to 500 rubles. for 1 sq. m. Immediately make a reservation that we did not set the goal of testing collections. Because decorative elements are very difficult to evaluate, primarily due to the subjective perception of the appearance. In addition, they are sold per piece, and it happens that the cost of one is commensurate with the cost of a whole square meter of background tiles.

Samples for testing were provided to us by domestic manufacturers "Lira Keramika", "Sokol", the Yekaterinburg plant of ceramic products, official representations of the plant "Keramin" (Belarus) and Rako (Czech Republic). We bought the rest of the samples in specialized Moscow building stores from official dealers of foreign and domestic manufacturers. Thus, we insured ourselves against the acquisition of counterfeits.

The tile test was carried out by specialists in the accredited testing laboratory "Aviapromstroytestaniya" JSC "Giproniiaviaprom" in Moscow in accordance with GOST 27180-2001 "Ceramic tiles. Test methods". The compliance of the presented products with the requirements of GOST 6141-91 "Glazed ceramic tiles for wall cladding. Technical conditions" was checked.

TEST PROCEDURES

1. Appearance. For wall tiles, this characteristic is perhaps the most important. Walls with potholes, chips and glaze defects make a dull impression and nullify the joy of a fresh renovation.

If floor tiles for interiors with minor flaws (GOST 6787-90) are not considered substandard, then for the appearance of wall tiles, the requirements are more stringent, albeit democratic. They take into account that to create a decorative effect, the front surface can combine various types of glaze and be wavy, and the pattern can be depressed or convex.

For grade I tiles, only subtle defects are allowed: flies that are invisible from one meter, pricks and violations of decor - paint rupture, slight displacement or change in color intensity. Their total number on one tile is no more than two.

There are more concessions for tiles of the II grade. If spots, flies, pricks, blockages and violation of decor, as well as undulations and depressions of the glaze are not visible from a distance of 2 m, the tile meets the requirements of GOST. She is even allowed a pair of 2-mm bumps from the front surface, chisels and notches on the ribs 1x10 mm, bald patches with a total area of ​​10 square meters. mm, adhesion no more than 5 sq. mm, bubbles, pimples and effervescence of the glaze, and a 2 mm gap along the edges of the colored tiles. The total number of defects on one tile is no more than three. Appearance control was carried out for each type of tile for a batch of 25 pieces. All specimens were carefully examined in daylight to detect defects. In addition to the flaws described above, they were closely studying whether there was a tseca - a network of small cracks intertwining like a spider's web.And the presence of invisible cracks was determined by ear by tapping with a wooden mallet. As a result of the test, the total number of tiles with deviations was determined.

In terms of appearance, all 10 types of tested tiles belong to the I grade. Tiles "Arbat-8" ("Sokol", Dedovsk, Moscow region) and Monaco (Rako, Czech Republic), which have practically no defects in appearance, were especially distinguished.

2. Geometric dimensions. For the tiler, these characteristics will be more important than the rest - the quality of the masonry as a whole depends on the correct geometry of each tile. If the samples are oblique, then ugly gaps-seams appear. Multi-thickness tiles have not the best strength properties: where it is thin, there it is pricked. And the significant curvature of the front surface leads to unevenness of even initially flat walls.

By their appearance, wall tiles are subdivided into rectangular, square, figured and shaped (angular, framing and baseboard), the side faces of which may have "blockages". GOST 6141-91 makes high demands on its geometry: the shape is correct, the edges and corners are clear. For rectangular and square tiles, the side surfaces must be at right angles to the front. To control the linear dimensions, 25 samples of each type of tile were studied.

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Linear dimensions. These indicators of the facing glazed wall tiles were excellent. All 10 types meet the requirements of GOST: deviations from the nominal dimensions in length and width do not exceed ± 0.8%, in thickness - within ± 8%, and the thickness difference of one tile is no more than the permissible 0.5 mm. The difference between the largest and smallest dimensions in one batch in length and width does not exceed 1.5 mm, and the spread of indicators in thickness is not more than the prescribed 1 mm.

Curvature of the front surface. The deviations of tiles from the shape in curvature allowed by GOST for grade I should not exceed 0.8 mm, for grade II - 1.1 mm. The curvature of the face of each of the 25 tiles in the batch was determined using a probe and a metal ruler. The ruler was applied edge-to-edge to the tile diagonal and the largest gap between it and the glazed surface was measured. The largest value of the gap in the batch was taken as the measurement result.

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Oblique angle. This "tiled ailment" is also regulated - for tiles longer than 150 mm, the deviation from the right angle is not more than 1 mm. A square was used to identify it. And not a drawing, but consisting of two strips located at right angles to each other, like the bottom and the wall of the box. The tool was alternately applied to the edges of the tile so that one lay tightly on its horizontal side, and the other touched the vertical one. In this position, the largest gap between the inner edge of the square and the controlled edge was measured.

In terms of "geometry", the Polish Olimpia Seledyn (Opoczno) was recognized as the leader among 10 types of glazed wall tiles in terms of the aggregate of the smallest deviations in shape and size from the nominal value. The complete absence of oblique angles was also noted in Polish products Polaris 4 (Ceramika Tubadzin).

3. Water absorption. First of all, the requirements for moisture resistance are imposed on the material for lining the bathroom. Water wears away a stone, and spoils bad ceramics. After all, if the tile absorbed moisture, like a sponge, it would quickly lose its appearance: it would change color, pattern, surface quality, dimensions, possibly even physical properties. According to GOST 6141-91, glazed ceramic tiles for wall cladding must absorb no more than 16% of water, and for specimens in the raw material of which carbonates and polymineral clays are present, this figure is increased to 24%.

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By the way, water absorption and absorption are two different things. Take a sponge and pumice stone, for example. Both materials are highly porous and capable of absorbing sufficient moisture. However, if everyone is put on a puddle of water, the sponge will absorb it and the pumice will ignore it. It turns out that the water absorption is high for both, and only the sponge absorbs water.

This parameter of each type of tile presented was determined in accordance with GOST 27180-2001 on three samples. Pieces weighing at least 50 g were cut out from three tiles, dried to constant weight and weighed on an electronic balance with an accuracy of 0.01 g. The samples were poured over with water and boiled over low heat for an hour. Then they were left in this "broth" for 4 hours, and then weighed again and the percentage of the "gain" of each piece was determined due to the absorbed moisture.

Experiments have shown that all 10 types of ceramic tiles have a satisfactory water absorption rate. The best results were shown by the domestic "Birch" (ZKI, Yekaterinburg) - 11%, and the Belarusian "August-3" ("Keramin") - 12.6%.

4. Ultimate bending strength. Of course, we do not walk on the walls, but during transportation and laying it is important how strong the tile is, so the requirements of GOST 6141-91 to withstand at least 15 MPa are quite reasonable. Determined the ultimate strength in bending in the laboratory "Aviapromstroyispytaniya" using the testing machine MR-05-1. Five tiles were taken from each batch, dried and alternately "tortured" under pressure.

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The sample was placed face up on two supports - parallel to each other metal rods. On top, in the middle of the tile, a pressure edge was installed - the same rod that transmits the load, and the test element was loaded uniformly, without jerks, at a rate of 20 N (newtons) per second until fracture. To calculate the ultimate strength, the values ​​of the maximum load recorded at the moment of failure and the smallest thickness at the point of fracture were taken.

The greatest strength in our case was shown by the domestic "Birch" (ZKI, Yekaterinburg) - 26.5 MPa, and the Belarusian "August-3" ("Keramin") - 26.2 MPa. By the way, these two types even satisfy the requirements of GOST 6787-90 for floor tiles - at least 25 MPa.

5. Mohs hardness of the glaze. During operation, the surface of the walls is inevitably exposed to various mechanical influences. As a rule, the walls are tiled with tiles in kitchens and bathrooms: so that they are not afraid of water, since you have to wash it often. And there, as you know, you cannot do without cleaning agents. At the same time, it is desirable that no traces of active cleaning remain on the tiles. The resistance of a material to scratches and damage is determined by one of two parameters: abrasion or surface hardness. Moreover, in accordance with the Russian GOST, unglazed (mainly floor) ceramic tiles are tested for abrasion, and the hardness of glazed tiles is determined according to the Mohs scale.

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Hardness is the property of a material to resist the penetration of another, more solid body. For its assessment, a scale is used, represented by ten minerals, where each subsequent one scratches the previous one with its sharp end. The scale includes them in increasing order of hardness from 1 to 10: 1 - talc, 2 - gypsum, 3 - calcite, 4 - fluorite, 5 - apatite, 6 - feldspar, 7 - quartz, 8 - topaz, 9 - corundum, 10 - diamond. Materials, starting from the sixth, easily scratch glass and are used as abrasive and grinding. And for facing wall tiles, the hardness of apatite is sufficient, its surface can be damaged with a steel knife, and then only under strong pressure.

The quality of the glaze was tested with test minerals on five whole tiles from one batch. The sharp edge of the stone was drawn along the face surface with light and uniform pressure, after which it was carefully examined for damage. If they were not there, the hardness of the corresponding mineral was assigned to the tile. The result was the smallest value among the tested samples.

All 10 types have the same hardness of the glazed surface and is characterized by a Mohs number of 5.

6. Chemical resistance of the glaze. As already mentioned, the walls are tiled in household premises, where wet cleaning is often required. It is understood that you can wash the ceramics, but it is useful to know which household detergents are preferable. The ability of a surface to withstand the effects of various substances (household chemicals, fats, salts, alkalis and acids) without altering its appearance is determined by its chemical resistance.

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An objective assessment can be given by direct contact with an aggressive substance. To do this, 5 whole tiles were cleaned with ethyl alcohol. Cylinders made of chemically resistant glass were glued to them with the help of sealing mastic, into which the so-called solution No. 3 of anhydrous sodium carbonate, sodium tetraborate, sodium silicate, soap flakes of sodium oleate and distilled water was poured. The samples were kept for 6 hours, after which they were thoroughly washed with water, again cleaned with alcohol and dried. Then they were carefully examined in daylight from a distance of 25 cm. The glaze is considered chemically resistant if no obvious changes in color, gloss and pattern are found on it.

All 10 types of tiles are chemically resistant and any household detergent is recommended for their care.

7. Thermal stability of the glaze. If the tile is laid in the bathroom or in the kitchen, then it cannot avoid sudden temperature changes: a contrast shower or heat from the stove simultaneously with cold air from the window. When the coefficient of thermal expansion of the glaze is not consistent with the "shard", it is under the influence of residual stresses, which significantly increase with a sharp change in temperature and lead to the formation of cracks, spalling, cuts and cuts, which is easy to detect by wetting the glazed surface with a dye - it will fill in and reveal microcracks.

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According to GOST 6141-91, glazed ceramic tiles for interior wall cladding must withstand heating up to +125 degrees Celsius and sharp cooling in water at a temperature of +15 degrees Celsius without changing the quality of the glaze. Thermal resistance was determined on three tiles from each batch. The dried samples were placed in an oven for half an hour, and then immediately under running water. After cooling, the tiles were removed from the water, a few drops of ink were applied to the surface, wiped with a soft cloth and examined.

Without exception, all the samples presented withstood the temperature drop and were recognized as thermally stable.

Monaco

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding (Rako, Czech Republic)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is smooth, shiny, decorated with a multicolor pattern with a predominance of light green and light beige.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 250x200 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: the palm in the struggle for impeccable appearance undoubtedly belongs to the Monaco tile. For a batch of 25 pieces, there are only two small defects - minor flies, invisible at a distance of one meter.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions and shape - within normal limits.

WATER ABSORPTION: 13.7% - one of the best results among the tested brands of ceramic tiles. A material with this indicator is perfect for wall cladding in wet rooms.

BENDING STRENGTH: specimens fractured under pressure of 18.6 MPa. Although this is an average achievement in the control group, it is 25% higher than the Russian standards and once again confirms that Czech tiles are a durable building material, suitable not only for private houses and apartments, but also for public premises.

MOHS HARDNESS: The hardness of the Monaco face is standard for this type of tile - 5 on the Mohs scale. To spoil its presentation, you need to try very hard. Of course, cleaning products will not harm her.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: when exposed to a standard alkaline solution, the enamel did not lose its shine and did not change color. So contact with household detergents is not terrible for her either.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: after "heat treatment", small cracks did not appear on the tile surface, indicating residual stresses in the glaze layer in relation to the shard. This means that the temperature regime during firing was observed correctly, and the enamel was made with high quality.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Monaco tiles fully meet the requirements of GOST 6141-91. It has a smooth and shiny glazed surface and a correct geometry. Indicators of appearance correspond to the I grade. Besides Monaco favorably stands out among others with almost complete absence of even minor defects. Its enamel is characterized by a Mohs hardness number of 5, it is resistant to temperature extremes, the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents.

Tile with relatively low water absorption and medium (in the tested group) level of strength. In terms of physical and mechanical properties, it is suitable for cladding household and public premises with high humidity.

Neris S049

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding ("Dvarchenu Keramika", Lithuania)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is smooth, shiny, decorated with a multicolored pattern with a predominance of green tint.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 250x200 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: As a result of a thorough examination in daylight, on seven Neris tiles out of 25, minor defects in appearance were found that are acceptable for grade I tiles: flies - on two samples and pricks - on five, which are no longer visible at a distance of one meter.

GEOMETRY: deviations of tiles from geometry are within normal limits.

WATER ABSORPTION: according to the test results, Lithuanian tiles "absorb" moisture at the level of 15.8% - almost on the verge of the standard (16%). Nevertheless, this is a perfectly acceptable figure for wall cladding in a bathroom or shower.

STRENGTH IN BENDING: although during the test the products of "Dvarchenu" showed average strength among the tested series, it was broken by not a small pressure - 21.8 MPa (almost one and a half times higher than the requirements of Russian GOST).

MEP HARDNESS: the hardness of the front surface corresponds to the hardness of the test mineral 5 - apatite, which meets the standards and allows the use of cleaning agents for the maintenance of tiles.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: after six hours of exposure to the enamel of the standardized GOST solution No. 3, the tiles did not show a loss of gloss, a change in color tone or decorative coating. But compared to this aggressive substance, household detergents are just "water".

THERMAL STABILITY: To check the quality of the surface after a sudden change in temperature, an organic dye was applied to it. Imagine the surprise when, instead of cracks, he identified "water marks" in the form of circles with a snowflake inside. The circles disappeared without a trace after washing, but reappeared when the paint was applied. The quality of the enamel did not change in any way. Apparently, this peculiar quality mark protects the products of the Lithuanian manufacturer from counterfeiting.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Neris S049 tiles have a smooth shiny glazed surface and a correct geometry. In terms of appearance, it corresponds to grade I. In addition, "Dvarchenu Keramika" protects its products from counterfeiting by special "water marks", which appear under the influence of an organic dye.

The glazed surface has a Mohs hardness of 5, which corresponds to the natural mineral apatite, is resistant to temperature extremes, the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents.

In the control group, the tiles are distinguished by relatively high water absorption and average strength values. Despite this, it fully meets the requirements of Russian GOST for ceramic tiles for interior wall cladding and is suitable for domestic and public premises with high humidity.

Olimpia Seledyn

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding (Opoczno, Poland)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is smooth, shiny, decorated with a multicolor pattern imitating marble.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 300x225 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: for grade I tiles, appearance defects are allowed, however, insignificant and already invisible from one meter, for example, such as those of Olimpia Seledyn: six small flies and one pin on a batch of 25 samples.

GEOMETRY: measurements showed that Polish tiles became the leader among the tested products in terms of the set of the smallest deviations of geometric parameters from the nominal value.

WATER ABSORPTION: the level of 15.1% is not the lowest in the control group and fully meets the requirements of GOST (no more than 16%). So Olimpia Seledyn tiles can be safely used for wall cladding in wet rooms: kitchens, bathrooms, showers, laundries, catering plants.

STRENGTH IN BENDING: in terms of strength, the products of the Opoczno plant take the "prize" third place among the materials we tested; its bending limit is 23.5 MPa (more than one and a half times higher than the GOST standard). This figure is perhaps closer to the strength of floor coverings (25 MPa). However, there is no need to experiment and use tiles in this role - the floor is exposed to much more serious abrasive loads than glazed enamel can withstand.

HARDNESS ACCORDING TO MOS: the hardness of the front surface corresponds to the hardness of the test mineral 5 (apatite): you can scratch it only with a steel knife, and then with a certain effort. But cleaning agents can be used fearlessly.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: when exposed to the enamel with a special alkaline solution, the tiles did not lose their gloss and did not change color - it turns out that contact with household detergents is not terrible for it.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: after a sharp temperature drop, the glazed surface did not change its appearance.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Olimpia Seledyn has a smooth and shiny glazed surface. In the control group, it is distinguished by the aggregate of the smallest deviations of geometric parameters from the nominal. In terms of appearance, the tile corresponds to grade I.

Its enamel has a hardness of 5 on the Mohs scale, is resistant to temperature changes, the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents.

The tile has relatively high water absorption and a fairly high flexural strength. It fully meets the requirements of GOST for wall cladding material for interior work and is recommended for domestic and public premises with high humidity.

Polaris 4

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding (Ceramika Tubadzin, Poland)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is wavy, shiny, orange.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 250x200 mm; thickness - 6.5 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: the glazed surface of Polaris 4 seems to be the most common - shiny and, moreover, monochromatic. But no! The waviness, which is noticeable upon closer observation, gives it a special chic. A wall tiled with such tiles will glare and play, reflecting light from different angles.

There were not many defects in appearance in a batch of 25 pieces: on four tiles there were front sight and on one - a pin. So the Polaris 4 fully meets the expectations of the I grade.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions from the nominal and curvature of the front surface (despite the deliberate waviness of the enamel) in Polish tiles are within normal limits. The obliqueness is completely absent, that is, the tiles are perfect rectangles in shape.

WATER ABSORPTION: tests have shown that products manufactured by Ceramika Tubadzin are capable of absorbing moisture at the level of 15.8% of the volume, which, however, satisfies the norm (no more than 16%). Therefore, it can be used for cladding bathrooms and other rooms with high humidity.

FLEXION STRENGTH: not the highest in the table of results - 17.0 MPa. But for ceramics and this value is more than enough, because the limit established by GOST is 15 MPa.

HARDNESS ACCORDING TO MOHS: comparable to the hardness of apatite, which corresponds to the number 5 on the Mohs scale. This allows the use of cleaning agents when caring for the tiles.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: after six hours of exposure to solution No. 3, the appearance of the sample did not change at all, from which it follows that household detergents will not damage it either.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: after a temperature drop of 110 degrees - "out of the fire and into the fire" - the glaze did not crack at all.

LABORATORY CONCLUSION: Polaris 4 has a wavy and shiny glazed surface. Deviations of the geometric dimensions and shape from the nominal are small, and the oblique angle is generally absent, which greatly simplifies the installation. In terms of appearance, the tile corresponds to grade I.

Its enamel is as hard as apatite (5 on the Mohs scale), resistant to temperature extremes and the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents.

The tile is distinguished by a relatively high water absorption and average strength in the group of tested products. However, the physical and mechanical indicators fully meet the requirements of the Russian GOST, which means that we can safely conclude that Polaris 4 will show itself just as well in bathrooms, showers, laundries, medical offices and other rooms with high humidity.

August-3

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding ("Keramin", Belarus)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is smooth, shiny, light beige with brownish veins.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 300x200 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: the glazed surface "August-3" is smooth and shiny. And yet, on twelve tiles from the batch (25 pieces), defects were found that are permissible for grade I products: on nine - small flies, and on three - minor pricks, indistinguishable already from a distance of one meter.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions and shape - within tolerance.

WATER ABSORPTION: tests have shown that Keramin tiles have one of the best moisture absorption rates - 12.6%, therefore they are perfect for lining bathrooms and other rooms with high humidity.

BENDING STRENGTH: This Belarusian tile showed one of the best strength characteristics - 26.2 MPa at a rate of 15 MPa - and took second place in our comparative results. By the way, this figure even meets the requirements of GOST for floor materials. True, you should not experiment and use it for other purposes, because the glaze of wall tiles is unlikely to withstand the abrasive loads that the floor is subjected to.

HARDNESS ACCORDING TO MEP: the hardness of the front surface corresponds to the hardness of the test mineral 5 - apatite, which meets the standards and allows the use of cleaning agents when caring for the tiles.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: after six hours of exposure to the enamel with a standard alkaline solution, the tile did not lose its shine, did not change the color tone or decorative coating. So, contact with household detergents is absolutely not terrible for her.

THERMAL STABILITY: after the temperature shock, the glaze has not undergone any changes.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: "August-3" tiles have a smooth shiny glazed surface and correct geometry. In terms of appearance, it corresponds to grade I. Its enamel is characterized by a Mohs hardness number of 5, resistant to temperature changes, the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents. In the control group, the tiles stand out for their high strength and low water absorption. Perfect for cladding household and public premises with high humidity.

Arbat-8

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding ("Sokol", Dedovsk, Russia)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is shiny, decorated with a multicolored convex pattern with a predominance of blue and gray shades.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including polymineral, containing carbonates and kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 330x200 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: the shiny front surface of the "Arbat-8" tile is decorated with an original convex pattern applied using the modern "rotocolor" technology. This method allows you to create tiles of the same color and design with an almost non-repeating pattern and is used to simulate the texture of natural stone.

The quality of the appearance is excellent and stands out even among the top-notch group. In a batch of 25 pieces, only three tiles were found with insignificant "blots" allowed by GOST: two with small flies and one with a barely discernible pin.

GEOMETRY: the tiles have the correct shape. The observed dimensional deviations in length, width and thickness, obliqueness of the sides and curvature of the front surface are within normal limits.

WATER ABSORPTION: the experiment showed that the product of the Sokol plant absorbs moisture at the level of 17.9% of the volume, which is permissible for tiles, the raw material of which contains carbonates and polymineral clays. (In accordance with GOST 6141-91, their water absorption should be within 24%.)

STRENGTH IN BENDING: the maximum load that the "Arbatskaya" can withstand is 18.4 MPa. This is almost 20% more than the current Russian GOST requires from facing tiles for walls. This material is suitable for both private and public construction.

HARDNESS ACCORDING TO MEP: the hardness of the glaze - 5 - corresponds to the hardness of apatite, as required by GOST from wall tiles. So you can use cleaning products when caring for the tiles.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: the appearance of the enamel did not change after six hours of exposure to an alkaline solution, from which it was concluded that contact with cosmetic, perfumery and household detergents is not terrible for the tiles.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: the surface remains intact after a sudden temperature drop. When a dye was applied, designed to reveal a thin network of cracks, the coke did not appear, but "water marks" were found.

The ink, diluted with water, showed circles in certain places on each tile - a kind of quality mark, it is also a protection against counterfeiting. When the tiles were washed, they disappeared without a trace without any change in the quality of the enamel; when re-applying paint - appeared again.

By the way, as the manufacturers told us, "Arbat-8" is one of the few wall tiles made using the single firing technology. This means that it was baked at a higher temperature, and the enamel was more reliably sintered with the shard. In appearance, it may seem that the surface of such a tile is slightly concave (although the experiment showed that this is not so), but on the walls it "straightens out". To do this, it must be soaked in water before laying.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: "Arbat-8" has a shiny glazed surface and correct geometry. In terms of appearance, it does not just correspond to the I grade, it practically does not have any defects. In addition, Sokol products are protected from counterfeiting by "water marks", which appear under the action of an organic dye.

The tile has a relatively high (within the limits of GOST) water absorption, since carbonate clays were used in its manufacture. It should be noted that this property is even useful for laying with preliminary soaking.

The glaze has a Mohs hardness of 5, it is thermally and chemically resistant, so that the surface will withstand treatment with household detergents and cleaning agents. The tile is suitable for wall cladding of residential and public premises with high humidity

Birch tree

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding (Ceramic products plant, Yekaterinburg, Russia)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is embossed with a combination of matte white and a shiny gray glaze partially applied over it.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 363x249 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: Obviously, the Birch tile is so named because of its embossed surface and the combination of a matte white glaze with a shiny gray. Due to this, the flies found on eight tiles from a batch of 25 pieces are practically invisible at all. In any case, GOST allows such minor flaws for grade I tiles.

True, the textured front surface is prone to quick dirt. During the tests, the entire tile was literally "gripped" by fingers. However, it was also easily washed with traditional detergents.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions, curvature of the front surface and oblique angle are insignificant and do not go beyond the normal range.

WATER ABSORPTION: tests have shown that in the control group "Birch" is the leader in resistance to moisture. Her water absorption is at the level of 11%. Such low water absorption capacity makes it suitable for wall cladding in private bathrooms and even in public baths.

FLEXION STRENGTH: During the tests, Yekaterinburg tiles showed the highest strength among all tested batches. She was broken by a pressure of 26.5 MPa, which is more than 75% higher than the requirements of the Russian GOST for wall tiles. It should be noted that this value even satisfies the requirements of GOST for floor materials. Nevertheless, putting it under your feet is risky - the glaze is unlikely to withstand abrasive loads, and the "white birch" is perhaps too white for the floor.

MOOS HARDNESS: The hardness of the glaze (5) allows the tiled walls to be maintained with household cleaning agents.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: the decorative coating has not changed in any way during the time of being adjacent to an aggressive alkaline solution, so contact with detergents is absolutely not terrible for it either.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: the tiles withstood 125-degree heat followed by "bathing" in cold running water without visible damage to the glazed surface.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: "Birch" tile has a textured glazed surface and correct geometry. It meets the requirements of GOST 6141-91 and corresponds to grade I in terms of appearance. Its enamel is characterized by a Mohs hardness number of 5, resistant to temperature changes, the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents. In the control group, tiles stand out in terms of physical and mechanical indicators: they have the lowest water absorption and have high strength, almost 1.8 times higher than the norm. Perfect for cladding household and public premises with high humidity.

Lands of Spain 831

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding ("Velor", Orel, Russia)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is smooth, shiny, decorated with a multicolor pattern with a predominance of light beige and light gray shades.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 300x200 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: probably the artist who created the collection "Lands of Spain" saw this land at dawn, when pastel colors prevailed around. The smooth shiny surface of the tile is decorated with a multicolor pattern. On six tiles from a batch (25 pieces), defects allowed for products of I grade were found: flies - on five and a pin - on one.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions from the nominal are small and are within the normal range. The same is the case with the curvature of the front side and oblique angle.

WATER ABSORPTION: The value of 16% is the maximum permissible for wall tiles, but nevertheless sufficient to use the "Land of Spain" for tiling bathrooms and other rooms with high humidity.

FLEXION STRENGTH: limit - 20.4 MPa - not the highest result among the tested products, but it more than meets the GOST standard (15 MPa). So ceramic tiles are suitable not only for private kitchens and bathrooms, but also for public places: hospitals, clinics, sports facilities, commercial premises.

HARDNESS ACCORDING TO MEP: according to test results, the hardness of the front surface corresponds to that of apatite, which meets the requirements of GOST. When cleaning the tiles, cleaning agents are acceptable.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: after contact with solution No. 3, the enamel did not lose its luster, the color tone and decorative coating did not change. Therefore, any household detergents are suitable for sanitizing the walls lined with it.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: the contrast of temperatures from +125 to +15 degrees Celsius did not affect the quality of the glazed surface.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: "Lands of Spain 831" has a smooth and shiny glazed surface and correct geometry. In terms of appearance, it corresponds to grade I.

The enamel is characterized by a Mohs hardness number of 5, resistant to temperature extremes, the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents.

The tile absorbs moisture at the level of 16%, which corresponds to the limit value of the standard, but does not interfere with its use in rooms with high humidity. Its flexural strength in the tested group is at the average level, but more than 35% higher than the norm. The tile is recommended for cladding domestic and public premises.

Mashuk

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding ("Stroyfarfor", Shakhty, Russia)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is smooth, shiny, decorated with a multicolor pattern with a predominance of a light purple hue.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 300x200 mm; thickness - 7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: during visual inspection of a smooth shiny glazed surface of a light purple tone, eleven tiles from a batch (25 pieces) were found to have defects that are acceptable for grade I products: two - small flies and nine - pricks invisible from a distance of 1 meter.

GEOMETRY: deviations of the linear dimensions from the nominal correspond to the Russian GOST, the curvature of the front surface and the oblique angle of the tiles are also insignificant.

WATER ABSORPTION: tests have shown that Shakhty tiles absorb moisture at the level of 15.1% by volume. This allows it to be used to decorate rooms with high humidity: bathrooms, showers, laundries, public catering plants.

STRENGTH IN BENDING: ultimate strength in bending of 15.8 MPa is not the highest result among the tested tiles, but satisfies the GOST standard (15 MPa). So the facing material is suitable for wall decoration in private houses and apartments and public places.

HARDNESS ACCORDING TO MOS: "Mashuka" glaze is as hard as apatite (hardness 5), and it can only be scratched with a steel knife, and then with a noticeable pressure. Therefore, no household cleaning agents can damage the "face" of the tile.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: from the unpleasant proximity to solution No. 3, the tile did not lose its shine and did not change color, so that contact with household detergents is absolutely not terrible for it.

THERMAL RESISTANCE: a sharp temperature drop did not affect the quality of the enamel.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: "Mashuk" has a smooth and shiny glazed surface and correct geometry. Its appearance indicators correspond to the I grade. Mohs enamel hardness - 5, it is resistant to temperature changes and the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents.

Among the tested products, Shakhty tiles stand out for their high water absorption and have the lowest bending strength. However, all values ​​are within the normal range, which gives the right to recommend it for residential and public premises with high humidity.

Orchid

Ceramic tiles for wall cladding ("Lira Keramika", Fryanovo, Russia)

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PURPOSE: for interior wall cladding of residential and public buildings - sanitary units, kitchens, utility rooms, hospitals, clinics, trade enterprises.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: glazed; the front surface is smooth, shiny, decorated with a multicolor pattern with a predominance of a light green shade.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clays (including polymineral, containing carbonates and kaolin), sand, dyes.

DIMENSIONS (LxW): 330x250 mm; thickness - 8 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: on the collection "Orchid" there are very few minor flaws (allowed by GOST) - just small flies on seven samples from a batch of 25 pieces, which are already invisible at a distance of one meter.

GEOMETRY: deviations of the linear dimensions of the tiles from the nominal and the shape from the "ideal" (curvature of the front surface and oblique angle) are insignificant and fully comply with the standards.

WATER ABSORPTION: the water resistance of Lira Keramika products is quite high - 18% of the volume, but it is quite acceptable for tiles, the raw material of which contains carbonates and polymineral clays. GOST 6141-91 states that their water absorption should be no higher than 24%, so that the result is more than satisfactory.

STRENGTH IN BENDING: by the standards of wall facing materials "Orchid" is incredibly strong and withstands 21.5 MPa, which is 40% higher than the established 15 MPa. A coating with such durability will last long and faithfully even in public places, not to mention private apartments.

HARDNESS ACCORDING TO MEP: the hardness of apatite is sufficient for tiles for interior wall cladding (5). The test showed exactly this result. "Household" conclusion from the above - cleaning agents "Orchid" are not terrible.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: the enamel did not change its original appearance after six hours of exposure to an alkaline solution. So contact with cosmetic, perfumery and household detergents, which is inevitable in bathrooms and kitchens, will not harm her.

THERMAL STABILITY: after keeping the tiles in the oven at +125 degrees Celsius and sharp cooling with running water, no cracks, spalls, notches and cuts were found - the ceramics are thermally resistant.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: the tile has a smooth and shiny glazed surface. Linear dimensions and their deviations from the nominal, as well as the correctness of the shape are within the normal range. In terms of appearance, "Orchid" corresponds to the I grade. Its enamel is characterized by a Mohs hardness number of 5, resistant to temperature changes, the effects of household detergents and cleaning agents.

Fryan tiles have the highest water absorption in the tested group, since their raw material contains carbonate clays, and an average bending strength. However, the physical and mechanical properties fully meet the requirements of GOST 6141-91, and it is suitable for cladding household and public premises with high humidity.

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