Windows were invented back in ancient times, and since then, each era, creating new architectural styles, has brought its own characteristics to the forms and decorative design of windows. And modern window structures are also elements that create a microclimate in the premises of the house. With the help of new technologies, materials and structures of windows, it is possible to regulate the temperature, air quality, and reduce the noise level in the room.
It is difficult to classify modern windows - their variety is so great. But, nevertheless, they can be divided according to the materials used for the manufacture of window blocks: wood, plastic, metal-plastic, metal and combined.
By the type of glazing, windows are divided: into glazed single or double sheet glass and double-glazed windows.
The windows are rectangular, arched, pointed (a tribute to the Gothic style) and round in shape.
And depending on the method of opening the sashes, windows are divided into several types. Sash, in which the window hinges are attached to the side surface of the sash, is the most common window design. For hinged windows, the sash rotates around the axis at the bottom edge of the frame. This type of windows is convenient for ventilation, as the upper part of the window opens and cold air does not blow across the floor.
There are also pivot windows, in which the sashes rotate around their vertical axis, as well as sliding windows.
If you are building your own home, the shape of the windows should match the architectural style you choose. If you like the classic style, the windows of your home are likely to be rectangular or arched. Gothic pointed, narrow and high windows will be a kind of decoration of a house in the style of a medieval castle, but a round window will be appropriate in a country-style kitchen. Modern, high-tech style home options usually feature large glazed windows, sliding doors, conservatories using plastic and metal.
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of window structures and materials from which the frames are made.
The overwhelming majority of the country's population lives with windows with wooden frames. Wood itself, as an environmentally friendly natural material, does not cause any complaints, and all problems associated with warping, deformation of frames, drafts and dust are caused, as a rule, by non-compliance with wood processing technology.
Modern wooden windows have a rather complex structure, are durable and easy to use. The elements of the frames of such windows are vacuum impregnated, then glued into bars. Such a multi-layer window beam is highly durable and resistant to deformation. Then the material is dried, sorted, defective parts are discarded. And the rest are heat treated. As a result of such a complex technology, the mechanical properties of the material are much higher than those of the original wood, while maintaining the environmental friendliness and decorative properties of the wood.
Glasses for windows with wooden frames are used simple, polished, and more recently, colored stained glass. Glasses are subject to high requirements in terms of strength, sound absorption and range of transmitted radiation. To improve thermal insulation and noise absorption, modern glass is laminated with a special coating.
In addition to protective ones, decorative coatings (films, spraying) have also come into fashion, allowing you to change the ability of glasses to transmit, refract or reflect light and thermal radiation. By applying metal oxides or crystals to the glass surface, sunscreen or heat-saving glasses are obtained.
Modern technologies of multilayer film coating create glasses of various colors, with a mirror effect. The disadvantages of film coatings include the low mechanical strength of some types of film.
The use of new materials for sealing and sealing windows can significantly increase their moisture resistance and eliminate drafts. Wooden frames made using new technologies are gaining popularity again, although more recently they were almost replaced by plastic windows.
Plastic has replaced wood because its main advantage is the ability to precisely adjust frames to size. Modern high-strength polyvinyl chloride is environmentally friendly, never warps in the sun, is not afraid of frost, moisture, or acid rain. But plastic has a significant drawback - it has low strength, so PVC windows are reinforced with metal inserts.
And among the advantages of such windows is a long-term guarantee for an impeccable external condition up to 15 years, while traditional wooden frames need to be updated and painted every three to four years. In addition, PVC windows have high insulating properties due to the special cross-section of the profiles.
Additional thermal insulation in plastic windows is provided by filling the inter-glass space of a double-glazed unit with an inert gas. And the tightness of such windows serves as a reliable barrier against drafts and dust. Plastic double-glazed windows are therefore widely used for glazing balconies and loggias.
Most of the negative reviews about the quality of plastic windows are caused by their manufacture in industries with a low technical level of equipment. At the same time, manufacturers that have proven themselves in the construction market produce really high quality PVC windows with a long warranty period.
Aluminum frames in housing construction are mainly used for glazing balconies and loggias, winter gardens, shop windows and stained-glass windows due to their low thermal insulation properties. To increase them, recently, combined frames have been produced using wooden inserts and special thermal insulating interframe gaskets.
Due to the application of lacquer or electroplated coatings using special technologies, aluminum windows look very decorative. A wide range of colors of coatings gives room for the implementation of design ideas when decorating windows. But galvanic coatings are less environmentally friendly, rather harmful substances are used for their application, so varnish coatings are more widespread.
A variety of material options, a rich color palette of paints and films, a variety of designs and shapes of windows - all this gives a wide range of choices, making your windows an independent decorative part of the interior.