Testing Porcelain Stoneware Tiles

Testing Porcelain Stoneware Tiles
Testing Porcelain Stoneware Tiles

Video: Testing Porcelain Stoneware Tiles

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Video: porcelain tile strength test 2023, February
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"Gres" (aka porcelain stoneware) is the newest type of ceramic tile, which itself is a little over 30 years old. It is used for cladding all types of surfaces, both indoors and outdoors: "private" interiors, restaurants, airports, swimming pools, sidewalk paths and much more. This finishing material successfully competes not only with traditional ceramics, but also with natural stone materials, so builders predict a great future for it. New unenamelled (unglazed) tiles in a variety of colors and shades have truly outstanding technical characteristics.

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Depth and consistency of color and pattern throughout the material. It is achieved thanks to a special composition: the mixture for the manufacture of porcelain stoneware consists of several types of clays (including kaolin), pure quartz sand, feldspar, mineral additives and coloring pigments, the most traditional of which are metal oxides. By the way, the natural components in the composition of "gres", unlike natural stone, do not serve as a source of increased radioactive background, and therefore are absolutely safe for health.

High strength and hardness. The unique technology of pressing and firing allows to impart excellent strength properties to the material. The tiles are pressed under a pressure of about 500 kilograms per square centimeter in small-format segments (approximately 2x2 cm). Thanks to this pressing technology, "gres" has a structure uniform in density. Firing of porcelain stoneware is carried out at a temperature of 1200 to 1300 degrees Celsius (almost 200 degrees higher than ordinary tiles). In this case, the so-called restructuring of the material occurs: the raw material is sintered and a monolith is formed. After cooling, a very hard and durable material is obtained, resistant to abrasion. Its hardness on the Mohs scale, according to some Italian manufacturers, reaches 8, while natural stones have no more than 6, and the hardest mineral in the world,diamond, - 10. So artificial granite is abraded weakly, and coatings from it have high wear resistance.

Exceptionally low water absorption. Even natural granites absorb moisture at the level of 0.02-0.7%. After firing, the "gres" tile has such a dense structure that its "absorption" values ​​are also close to zero. Therefore, ceramic granite, as a rule, is also distinguished by high frost resistance.

MAIN SURFACES

The range of ceramic granite is wide and varied, the materials differ from each other by the type of surface and the technology of making the pattern.

Matte coating. Untreated, has a natural appearance, which is obtained after leaving the oven.

Polished. The rough layer is cut off and polished. The material becomes brilliant, its color acquires "depth". Unfortunately, polished tiles are less resistant to scratches and become very slippery when exposed to water.

Semi-polished. By partially cutting off the top layer, an effective combination of polished areas is created, mixed with a rough matte texture. Usually tiles with an initially uneven face are treated this way.

"Waxed". The waxed surface effect is achieved by transparent mineral crystals applied to the tiles prior to the sintering phase. Slightly shiny surface has smooth soft irregularities, so it does not "slip" like polished.

Textured. To obtain the texture of "old stone" or "brickwork" use special stamps.

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WHAT AND HOW WE TESTED

For our test, we selected 10 types of floor unglazed ceramic tiles "gres" worth up to 600 rubles. for 1 square meter and with dimensions of about 30x30 cm. Let us immediately make a reservation that in the capital this money can be used to purchase material that is rather modest from the point of view of sellers and builders. We chose ceramic granite with a rough, matte surface, which is often called "salt-pepper" in everyday life. It is widely represented on the market by manufacturers from far and near abroad, as well as by domestic factories.

We bought most of the samples in the Moscow construction markets from official dealers of foreign and domestic manufacturers. Thus, we insured ourselves against the acquisition of counterfeits.

The testing itself was carried out by specialists in the accredited testing laboratory "Aviapromstroytestaniya" JSC "Giproniiaviaprom" in Moscow in accordance with GOST 27180-86 "Ceramic tiles. Test methods". The compliance of the presented products with the requirements of GOST 6787-90 "Ceramic tiles for floors. Technical conditions" was checked.

TEST PROCEDURES

1. Geometrical parameters and appearance. For the tiler, these characteristics will be more important than the rest. The impeccable appearance not only pleases the eye, the quality of the surface as a whole depends on the correct geometric dimensions of each tile. To put it simply, oblique samples with noticeable deviations in length and width generate large unnecessary gaps. Multi-thickness tiles have not the best strength properties: where it is thin, there it is pricked. And a significant curvature of the front surface leads to the formation of depressions, there will be potential puddles after wet cleaning.

Control of linear dimensions, correctness of shape and appearance was carried out for each type of tile in a batch of 9 pieces. Linear dimensions. The "linear" values ​​of porcelain stoneware are very high. All presented ten types of tiles of the selected format (over 100 mm in length and width, 4-9 mm thick) meet the requirements of GOST 6787-90: deviations from nominal dimensions in length and width do not exceed ± 1%, in thickness - ± 10%, and the difference in thickness of one tile is not more than the permissible 0.8 mm. This is due to the fact that, firstly, the technology of pressing and heat treatment itself provides an almost perfect match of the tile size to the mold. And secondly, after firing, many manufacturers carry out reification - additional machining of the side edges to make all tiles in the series the same size in each format.

Curvature of the front surface. The deviations from the curvature allowed by GOST are not more than 0.5%. The curvature of the face of each of the nine tiles in the batch was determined using a probe and a metal ruler. The ruler was applied with an edge to the diagonal of the tile and the largest gap between it and the granite surface was measured. The largest value of the gap in the batch was taken as the measurement result.

Oblique angle. This "tiled disease" is also regulated - no more than 0.5%. A square was used to identify it. And not a drawing, but a special calibrated one, consisting of two strips located at right angles to each other, like the bottom and wall of the box. The tool was alternately applied to the edges of the tile so that one lay tightly on its horizontal side, and the other touched the vertical one. In this position, the largest gap between the inner edge of the square and the controlled edge was measured.

Appearance. If there are minor flaws on the floor tiles for interior premises, the GOST standards do not consider it substandard, but they only strictly stipulate the nature of the defects and their number. Possible spots and flies should be invisible already at a distance of 1.7 meters, the total area of ​​the beaten off from the front surface should not exceed 10 square millimeters, and the gaps and notches on it should be no wider than 1 millimeter and no longer than 10. In addition, no more than 3 such defects are allowed on one tile at a time.

All specimens were subjected to close examination under diffused artificial light. He showed that on none of the samples of each of the ten lots of floor tiles, external defects of the front surface (chipping, chipping, notches, bald patches, spots, flies, cuts) were found. This fact indirectly testifies to the high strength of the material, because even during transportation, situations inevitably arise in which the presentation may suffer. In terms of "geometry", the Turkish tile "Sahara" (Toprak) was recognized as the leader among ten types of ceramic granite. It has minimal deviations from the nominal size in length and width (+ 0.03%) and there is no curvature of the front surface.

2. Water absorption. First of all, requirements for moisture resistance are imposed on the material for lining the bathroom. Water wears away a stone, and spoils porous ceramics. After all, if the tile absorbed moisture, like a sponge, it would quickly lose its appearance: it would change color, pattern, surface quality, dimensions, possibly even physical properties. According to GOST 6787-90, unglazed floor tiles should not absorb more than 3.8% of their own volume of water. By the way, water absorption and absorption are two different things. Take a sponge and pumice stone for example. Both materials are highly porous and capable of absorbing sufficient moisture. However, if you put each one on a puddle of water, the sponge will absorb it, and the pumice will ignore it. It turns out that the water absorption is high for both, and only the sponge absorbs water.This parameter of each presented type of porcelain stoneware was determined in accordance with GOST 27180-86 on five samples. Pieces, weighing at least 50 grams, were split off from the tiles, dried to constant weight and weighed with high precision on an electronic scale. The samples were poured over with water and boiled over low heat for three hours. The granite was left in this "broth" for a day, and then weighed again and the "gain" of each piece was determined as a percentage due to the absorbed moisture. As the experiment showed, ceramic granite has a very low water absorption rate - at the level of natural stone. The best results were shown by the Italian tiles Coral CL06 (Estima).The samples were poured over with water and boiled over low heat for three hours. The granite was left in this "broth" for a day, and then weighed again and the "gain" of each piece was determined as a percentage due to the absorbed moisture. As the experiment showed, ceramic granite has a very low water absorption rate - at the level of natural stone. The best results were shown by the Italian tiles Coral CL06 (Estima).The samples were poured over with water and boiled over low heat for three hours. The granite was left in this "broth" for a day, and then weighed again and the "gain" of each piece was determined as a percentage due to the absorbed moisture. As the experiment showed, ceramic granite has a very low water absorption rate - at the level of natural stone. The best results were shown by the Italian tiles Coral CL06 (Estima).

3. Ultimate bending strength. When it comes to flooring, durability is one of the main requirements for it. We mercilessly trample and load the tiles under our feet, drop heavy objects on it. Its strength characteristics are important both during installation and during operation. Imagine that the floor surface is imperfect and unevenly in contact with the tiles, so even the load from your weight over the tile area is redistributed unevenly. The ultimate value of the load that a material can withstand without destruction characterizes the strength (or resistance) to bending. For example, under a female hairpin, the pressure can reach 6 MPa, so the requirements of GOST 6787-90 at least 25 MPa are quite reasonable. (By the way, the corresponding EN 100 norm for ceramic granite differs little from the Russian one: the European limit is 27 MPa.)

To determine the ultimate strength in bending of the "gres" tile, a UMM-50 testing machine was used in the laboratory "Aviapromstroy testa" In each batch of ceramic granite, 8 tiles were selected. From them, 10 samples of the size of half a tile were cut out, dried and tested in turn on the press.

The sample was placed face up on two supports - parallel to each other metal rods. At the top in the middle of the tile, a pressing edge was installed - the same rod transmitting the load - and the test element was loaded uniformly, without jerks, at a rate of 0.6 MPa per second until destruction. To calculate the ultimate strength, the values ​​of the maximum load recorded at the moment of failure and the smallest thickness at the point of fracture were used. It should be noted that, according to the results of the study of the strength properties of porcelain stoneware, all the samples have proven themselves very worthy: their bending strength is 1.5-2 times higher than the requirements of the current Russian standard for floor ceramic tiles. But even among them the top four stood out: Gres 0633 ("Keramin", Belarus), Basic New York (Floor gres, Italy), "Sahara "(Toprak, Turkey) and Granite Naturale MP5135 (Kerko, Slovakia).

4. Abrasion. During operation, the surface of the floor is subjected mainly to abrasive forces: we shuffle our feet, move furniture, drag weights. At the same time, I really do not want traces of such activities to remain on him. The material's resistance to scratches and damage is characterized by one of two parameters: surface hardness or abrasion. Moreover, in accordance with the Russian GOST, the hardness according to the Mohs scale is determined only for glazed ceramic tiles, and unglazed, to which the tested porcelain stoneware belongs, is tested for abrasion.

Abrasion resistance refers to the weight loss of a tile after sanding - this process is the basis of the test. In accordance with GOST 27180-86, for our research, 5 samples of 70x70 mm were cut from each type of ceramic granite and glued to concrete cubes. The blanks were dried to constant weight and accurately weighed. The samples were tested on an LKI-3 device. Each was abraded on a grinding disc 12 times in a different direction. Quartz sand of a certain fraction was used as an abrasive. The cube was pressed against the disk with its front surface with a load of 0.6 MPa and grinded for 1 minute, during which time the disk made 30 revolutions. Then the sample was thoroughly cleaned, turned 90 degrees and ground with a new portion of abrasive. The abrasion of the material was determined by the total weight loss after 12 grinding cycles.

Coral CL06 tiles (Estima, Italy) have the best abrasion resistance indicators. But a special production technology provides extremely low abrasion to all tested "gres" materials - 3-4 times better than the GOST standard (0.18 g / cm 2) - which means minimal wear of the coating over a long service life. To care for porcelain stoneware with a matte surface, you can safely use any household powder cleaners. 5. Chemical resistance. As a rule, tiles are laid on the floor in household premises, where wet cleaning is often required - in bathrooms, kitchens and hallways. It is understood that you can wash the ceramics, but it is useful to know what household detergents to use for this. The ability of the material to withstand the effects of various substances (household chemicals, fats, salts, alkalis and acids),without changing the appearance, it is determined by its chemical resistance. An objective assessment is provided by direct contact with an aggressive substance, but such an experiment would have lasted too long.

For unglazed tiles, GOST provides an express method for determining chemical resistance. The tiles were preliminarily crushed to a certain fraction, thoroughly washed and dried. One part of the sample was placed in a 70% sulfuric acid solution, the other in a 1% alkaline sodium hydroxide solution. Both were boiled for 6 hours on low heat, defended, filtered and thoroughly washed. The solid residues after the action of acid and alkali were dried and weighed. Acid and alkali resistance of the material was determined from the change in the mass of each sample. By the way, the Russian GOST does not regulate them, and in Europe the EN 122 norm introduces a letter classification.

Porcelain stoneware of all manufacturers, without exception, has high chemical resistance, equal to the European class AA, which corresponds to the absence of visible changes in appearance after prolonged contact of the tile with an aggressive environment. Among the most acid-resistant are Nebraska Naturale (Casalgrande Padana, Italy), Coral CL06 (Estima, Italy), Estima ST06 (Estima, Russia, Noginsk) and Sahara (Toprak, Turkey) - acid resistance is more than 98% … The high alkali resistance (97-98%) of ceramic tiles allows you to use any detergents when caring for them.

Basic new york

Floor ceramic tiles (Floor gres, Italy)

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PURPOSE: finishing of floors in bathrooms, kitchens, household and public premises, hospitals, schools, as well as in chemical laboratories.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - gray with light gray and black splashes.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 297х297 mm; thickness - 8.7 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: on the front surface of the Basic New York tile, no chipping, chipping, stains or other defects not allowed by GOST were found. The facing material has the same structure and color throughout the entire volume.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions and shape - within tolerance.

WATER ABSORPTION: Tests have shown that Floor gres porcelain stoneware absorbs very little moisture - at the level of 0.20%, which makes it widely used for lining bathrooms, showers and other sanitary and hygienic areas.

BENDING STRENGTH: This Italian tile has one of the best strength characteristics among other porcelain stoneware - 49.4 MPa at a rate of 25 MPa - and according to the results of our comparative studies it took the second place.

EASY: During grinding, the Basic New York samples lost very little in weight - 0.047 g / cm 2. Such material is suitable for premises with increased requirements for cleanliness: healthcare institutions, schools, kindergartens, sports facilities, food enterprises. And also for covering floors subject to high abrasion loads, for example, in salesrooms or at metro stations.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: ceramic tiles with acid resistance above 97% (corresponding to the highest class AA of CEN standards) are recommended for cladding in chemical laboratories. Contact with household detergents is all the more not scary to her.

LABORATORY CONCLUSION: Floor gres Basic New York tiles have a homogeneous structure, high density and correct geometry. It is distinguished by high strength and low abrasion, which is important for premises with high traffic.

Due to the raw material composition and the peculiarities of the manufacturing technology, Basic New York ceramic granite is impervious to moisture and corrosive environments. It can be used in places with high humidity, strict sanitary and hygienic requirements and in chemical laboratories.

Coral CL06

Floor ceramic tiles (Estima, Italy)

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PURPOSE: finishing of floors in bathrooms, kitchens, household and public premises, hospitals, schools, as well as in chemical laboratories.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - yellow with light gray, brown and white blotches.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 298x298 mm; thickness - 7.4 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: Coral CL06 tiles have a more pronounced background color and blotches, the color "does not ripple". The material is homogeneous, the surface is smooth and dull, there are no defects.

GEOMETRY: deviations of the linear dimensions from the nominal correspond to the Russian GOST, the curvature of the front surface and the oblique angle of the tiles are also insignificant.

WATER ABSORPTION: Tests have shown that Coral CL06 is the leader in moisture resistance in the control group. Its water absorption is at the level of 0.08%. Such low capacity for water absorption allows it to be used for flooring in private bathrooms and in public and industrial premises with high humidity.

FLEXION STRENGTH: in the "family" of porcelain stoneware, the flexural strength of 44.2 MPa is not the highest result, but it more than meets the GOST standard (25 MPa). Therefore, the tiles are suitable for tiling floors subject to heavy loads.

ABRASION: Coral CL06 is the leader in the wear resistance competition - its abrasion resistance is 0.042 g / cm 2. The products of the Italian company Estima are suitable for covering floors in rooms with increased requirements for cleanliness: healthcare institutions, schools, kindergartens, sports facilities, food enterprises. And also in places subject to high abrasion loads, for example, in sales areas.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: this porcelain stoneware has one of the highest resistance to acids and alkalis, more than 98% (at the level of AA class of the European CEN standards), so that it can even be used in chemical laboratories. Any detergent is suitable for the maintenance of the tiles.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Coral CL06 tiles by Estima have the correct geometry, uniform structure and color throughout. In the control group, it is distinguished by the combination of the highest indicators: it has enormous strength, the highest abrasion resistance, the lowest water absorption, and is immune to the action of acids and alkalis. Has acid resistance at the level of requirements for finishing materials for chemical laboratories. Recommended for use in household bathrooms and toilets, rooms with high humidity and high requirements for cleanliness, in public places with large human flows.

Estima ST06

Floor ceramic tiles (Estima, Russia, Noginsk)

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PURPOSE: finishing of floors in bathrooms, kitchens, household and public premises, hospitals, schools, as well as in chemical laboratories.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - dark green with light gray blotches.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 300.5x300.5 mm; thickness - 8.1 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: like any unglazed ceramic granite of the "salt-pepper" type, Nogin tiles have a uniform structure and color. On the motley front surface, flaws and defects were not noticed, so that its appearance fully meets the requirements of Russian GOST.

GEOMETRY: deviations of the linear dimensions of the tiles from the nominal and the shape from the "ideal" (curvature of the front surface and oblique angle) are insignificant and fully correspond to the normative ones.

WATER ABSORPTION: among the tested ceramic granite, the water resistance of Nogin products is average, and it is able to absorb moisture at the level of 0.22%. However, this is twice as good as natural stone resists water and more than enough for floor tiles. Therefore ST06 can be used for covering floors in bathrooms and other areas with high humidity.

FLEXION STRENGTH: Like all gres tiles, the Russian Estima is incredibly strong. Although 46.5 MPa is not the highest result obtained in our tests, a coating with such strength will last long and righteously even in public places with high traffic intensity.

EFFICIENCY: despite the fact that among the tested materials, the weight loss of 0.062 g / cm 2 for 12 abrasion cycles on a grinding machine is an average figure, it meets the GOST standards with a triple margin. So, according to experts, the abrasion of Nogin tiles is low (the lower the better). In this regard, it can be laid in places with a large "throughput" capacity: at train stations, metro stations, in trading halls and airports; as well as at facilities with increased requirements for cleanliness: in hospitals, child care facilities, at food industry enterprises.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: According to the test results, Estima tiles have one of the best indicators of acid and alkali resistance - more than 98%. This not only guarantees the resistance of the flooring to any household detergent, but also allows the use of porcelain stoneware for cladding chemical laboratories.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Estima ST06 tiles have a uniform structure and color throughout the volume, high density and correct geometry. Ceramic granite is immune to high humidity and aggressive media. Has acid resistance at the level of requirements for finishing materials for chemical laboratories.

The tile is distinguished by high strength and low abrasion. These properties make it possible to use it for cladding rooms with high traffic.

Granite Naturale MP5135

Ceramic floor tiles (Kerko, Slovakia)

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PURPOSE: finishing floors in bathrooms, kitchens, common corridors of residential buildings, hospitals, schools, businesses and sales areas.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - light brown with light gray blotches.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 298x298 mm; thickness - 8.0 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: tiles have a homogeneous material structure and the same color throughout the volume. As a result of inspection and sawing, no defects were found.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions, curvature of the front surface and obliqueness are insignificant and within normal limits.

WATER ABSORPTION: Tests have shown that Kerko granite absorbs moisture at a level of 0.17% by volume. This allows it to be used for the design of domestic, public and industrial premises with high humidity: bathrooms, showers, laundries, catering plants.

STRENGTH IN BENDING: only under a serious (48.6 MPa) pressure the tiles were able to "break". A floor covering of this strength is practical and will last for a long time both in private use and in public places.

EFFICIENCY: among the grades of porcelain stoneware tested by us, the MP5135 has an average abrasion resistance of 0.052 g / cm 2. But if we recall the standards of GOST (0.18 g / cm 2), then it becomes clear: the resulting indicator highly characterizes the wear resistance of the material.

Tiles with such abrasion are recommended for use in medicine, pharmaceuticals, food industry, children's, sports and health institutions. Porcelain stoneware also fulfills the requirement for high traffic floors to withstand high traffic.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: at the level of AA class of the European CEN standards. The tile is resistant to acids and alkalis, so any detergent can be used to maintain it.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Granite Naturale MP5135 tiles have the correct geometry, structure and color uniform throughout the volume. According to the test results, among the tested grades of ceramic granite, the indicators of strength, water absorption, resistance to abrasion and exposure to chemicals are average. But, as has been repeatedly noted, all experimentally determined parameters with a large margin meet the requirements of GOST 6787-90 for floor tiles. Therefore, Granite Naturale MP5135 can be used in rooms with high humidity, with strict requirements for cleanliness, in places with heavy workload and intensive traffic.

Micron

Ceramic floor tiles (Revigres, Portugal)

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PURPOSE: finishing floors in bathrooms, kitchens, common corridors of residential buildings, hospitals, schools, businesses and sales areas.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - beige with brown and gray splashes.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 301x301 mm; thickness - 8.4 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: There are no defects on the face of the tested batch of Micron tiles. The color and structure of the material is uniform throughout the volume.

GEOMETRY: the tiles have the correct geometry. The observed dimensional deviations in length, width and thickness, obliqueness of the sides and curvature of the front surface are within normal limits.

WATER ABSORPTION: The experiment showed that Revigres Micron porcelain stoneware absorbs moisture at the level of 0.21% by volume, which makes it suitable for decoration of domestic and industrial premises with high humidity.

FLEXION STRENGTH: the maximum load that Portuguese porcelain stoneware can withstand is 47.0 MPa. This is almost twice as much as the current Russian GOST requires from floor tiles. Such material can be used for both private and public construction in places with increased traffic.

EASY: weight index - 0.063 g / sq. Cm. Tiles with similar properties are suitable even for industrial premises with high traffic volumes (not to mention residential and office). Low abrasion is also extremely important for floors with increased sanitary requirements: in hospitals, laboratories, catering plants.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: Micron is recognized as one of the most alkaline resistant tiles by the Express Method (98.1% alkali resistance). This should please clean housewives who prefer to wipe the floors with special detergents.

CONCLUSION LABORATORY: Micron has the correct geometry, uniform structure and color throughout the volume. The tile is characterized by high strength and low abrasion, which makes it possible to use it in places with a high intensity of human flows.

Due to the raw material composition and the peculiarities of the manufacturing technology, it is immune to high humidity and aggressive environments. It has the best alkali resistance, which allows it to be used in rooms with high cleanliness requirements and to use any household cleaning and detergents for maintenance.

Nebraska Naturale

Ceramic floor tiles (Casalgrande Padana, Italy)

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PURPOSE: finishing of floors and walls in bathrooms, kitchens, domestic and public areas, hospitals, schools, as well as in chemical laboratories.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - light beige with black and gray splashes.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 297х297 mm; thickness - 8.6 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: tiles have a uniform structure and color throughout the volume. No defects were found on the face of the entire batch of Nebraska Naturale tested.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions from the nominal correspond to GOST, as well as minor deviations from the shape along the curvature of the front surface and oblique angle.

WATER ABSORPTION: Tests have shown that Casalgrande Padana tiles have one of the best moisture absorption rates of 0.18%, which makes them ideal for tiling bathrooms and other areas with high humidity.

STRENGTH IN BENDING: the result obtained is quite high compared to the norms - 42.8 MPa with a norm of 25 MPa. Among the materials tested, this figure is quite modest, although more than sufficient for domestic and even public needs.

EFFICIENCY: Nebraska Naturale was one of the best for this characteristic among the materials presented - 0.048 g / cm2. Low abrasion of the floor covering, firstly, is important in facilities with increased requirements for cleanliness: in hospitals, child care facilities, in food industry enterprises. And, secondly, in places with a large "throughput" capacity, for example, at railway stations and airports.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: complies with the highest class of European standards CEN - AA. In addition, according to the test results, this Italian tile has the highest acid resistance (98.7%), and alkali resistance at 97.9%. Such high rates not only guarantee the resistance of the tile to the effects of any household detergents, but also make it possible to use it for equipping chemical laboratories.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Nebraska Naturale tiles have a homogeneous structure, high density and correct geometry. Ceramic granite is immune to high humidity and aggressive media. Has acid resistance at the level of requirements for finishing materials for chemical laboratories.

The tile is distinguished by high strength and low abrasion. These properties make it possible to use it for covering floors in rooms with increased operational load.

TK28

Ceramic floor tiles (Mirage Ceramica, Italy)

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PURPOSE: finishing floors in bathrooms, kitchens, common corridors of residential buildings, hospitals, schools, businesses and sales areas.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - pink with black and brown splashes.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 298x298 mm; thickness - 7.3 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: the color and structure of the TK28 material are uniform throughout the volume, no defects were found on the front surface of the tested batch.

GEOMETRY: deviations of the linear dimensions of the tiles from the nominal are small and are within the normal range. The same is the case with the curvature of the front surface and oblique angle.

WATER ABSORPTION: 0.34% is the average achievement for porcelain tiles in the test group. In general, this is an excellent indicator for ceramic floor tiles, thanks to which TK28 can be used for flooring in rooms with high humidity.

FLEXION STRENGTH: 42.2 MPa flexural strength is not the highest result among the tested tiles, but it more than meets the GOST standard (25 MPa). Porcelain stoneware is suitable for residential corridors, sales and exhibition halls and other places with heavy traffic.

EFFICIENCY: according to the test results, the abrasive resistance of 0.055 g / cm 2 is average for porcelain stoneware, however, it fits within the normal range (0.18 g / cm 2) with a large margin. So in fairness, we note: the wear resistance is very high.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: tiles have the highest alkali resistance - 98.3%, therefore any detergent is suitable for maintenance. TK28 is also practically immune to the action of acids. According to CEN standards, it can be assigned a chemical resistance class AA.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: TK28 tiles have the correct geometry, uniform structure and color throughout the volume. According to the test results in the tested group, it has average indicators of strength, abrasion resistance and water absorption. But it has better resistance to alkalis.

As mentioned earlier, all experimentally determined parameters with a large margin meet the requirements of GOST 6787-90 for floor tiles. Therefore, TK28 can be used in rooms with high humidity, with strict requirements for cleanliness, in places with heavy workload and intense human flows.

Gres 0633

Floor ceramic tiles (Keramin, Belarus)

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PURPOSE: finishing of floors in bathrooms, kitchens, household and public premises, hospitals, schools, as well as in chemical laboratories.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - green with light beige and black splashes.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 298x298 mm; thickness - 8.1 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: Gres 0633 made in Belarus has a rather rough front surface. No defects were found on it, but this texture in itself is a good disguise for potential scratches.

GEOMETRY: deviations of tiles from geometry are within normal limits.

WATER ABSORPTION: "Granite" from the "Keramin" plant has a very high water resistance, at the level of resistance of natural stone to moisture. At a standard for tiles of 3.8% by volume, its water absorption is at the level of 0.1%. This is one of the best results in our testing (2nd place).

Such tiles are suitable for tiling floors in bathrooms, showers, saunas and other rooms with high humidity.

STRENGTH IN BENDING: During the tests, Belarusian porcelain stoneware showed the highest strength among all tested series. He was broken by a pressure of 49.9 MPa, which is almost twice the requirements of the Russian GOST for floor tiles. Such a margin of safety and relatively low cost (in comparison with imports from far abroad) significantly expands the scope of the material: from private construction to public construction.

EFFICIENCY: the figure of 0.064 g / sq. Cm is below the average for porcelain stoneware (obviously, this is due to the rough texture of the surface, which wears out unevenly), but this figure is three times better than the norm of the Russian state standard. According to the conclusion of the laboratory, the products of the Keramin plant have a sufficiently high resistance to abrasive and abrasive loads and are suitable for facing floors with increased "traffic".

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: at the level of AA class of the European CEN standards. The tile is inert to the effects of acids and alkalis and, according to the conclusion of the laboratory, can be used not only in household premises, but also in chemical laboratories. Any detergent can be used to care for ceramic granite.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: Belarusian-made tiles called Gres 0633 have a homogeneous structure and the same color throughout the volume. It has the highest durability and low abrasion properties among the tested porcelain stoneware, as well as one of the best indicators of water absorption and chemical resistance.

Such tiles can be used in places with a high intensity of human flows, in rooms with high humidity, with strict requirements for cleanliness and in chemical laboratories

Gres Porcellanato BP209

Floor ceramic tiles ("Piastrella", Russia, Yekaterinburg)

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PURPOSE: finishing floors in bathrooms, kitchens, common corridors of residential buildings, hospitals, schools, businesses and sales areas.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - brown with beige splashes.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 298x298 mm; thickness - 7.6 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: "Gres Porcellanato" BP209 has a uniform structure and color throughout its volume. No defects of the front surface were found during visual inspection.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions from nominal - within normal limits, curvature and obliqueness are minimal.

WATER ABSORPTION: according to the test results, the Ural tiles have the highest percentage of water absorption (0.64%) in the control group. But compared to the GOST standard for floor ceramics (3.8%), this is a very good indicator. Such ceramic granite can be safely used for flooring in rooms with high humidity.

BENDING STRENGTH: The strength of this tile is not the highest in the table of results - 40.2 MPa. But for ceramics this value is more than enough, because the limit established by GOST is one and a half times less.

EASY: weight loss rate - 0.062 g / sq. Cm. Tiles with such properties are suitable for residential, office, cultural and even industrial premises with high traffic intensity. It can also be used in hospitals, schools, catering places.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: Ural porcelain stoneware has an excellent alkali resistance of 98.0%. So any household detergents are applicable to its care. Acid solutions are not terrible either - the chemical resistance of the tile corresponds to the AA class of the European CEN standards.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: the tiles "Gres Porcellanato" BP209 have the correct geometry, uniform structure and color throughout the volume. In the group of products tested, it has the lowest strength and abrasion resistance, as well as a relatively high water absorption. But it is highly resistant to alkalis.

However, in fairness, it should be noted that all experimentally determined parameters with a margin meet the requirements of GOST 6787-90 for floor tiles. Therefore, this porcelain stoneware can be used in rooms with high humidity, with strict requirements for cleanliness, in places with a heavy load and intense traffic.

Sahara

Floor ceramic tiles (Toprak, Turkey)

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PURPOSE: finishing of floors in bathrooms, kitchens, household and public premises, hospitals, schools, as well as in chemical laboratories.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

TILE: unglazed; the front surface is multicolored - gray-blue with light gray and black splashes.

RAW MATERIALS: several types of clay (including kaolin), sand, dyes.

SIZES: 330х330 mm; thickness - 8.4 mm.

TEST RESULTS

APPEARANCE: visual inspection of Toprak products left a pleasant impression: homogeneous material, smooth matte surface, complete absence of any defects. The format of the Sahara tiles is somewhat different from the total mass of the subjects - about 3 cm more in length and width.

GEOMETRY: deviations of linear dimensions are ridiculously small - 0.03%, there is no curvature of the front surface. By the totality of geometric indicators, Turkish porcelain stoneware is a sample of rectified tiles, cut after firing to a single caliber.

WATER ABSORPTION: "Sahara" is highly water resistant and, unlike the desert of the same name, does not absorb moisture like sand. Its water absorption of 0.15% is one of the best results among the tested brands of porcelain stoneware. Tiles with this indicator are perfect for tiling floors in damp rooms.

BENDING STRENGTH: specimens fractured under pressure of 48.8 MPa. This achievement once again confirms that "gres" tiles are a very durable building material intended for finishing floors subject to heavy loads.

EFFICIENCY: in terms of abrasion resistance "Sugar" occupies an average position among the tested materials with a result of 0.049 g / cm 2. And still this is a very good indicator, highly characterizing the wear resistance of the tile. Therefore porcelain stoneware flooring is durable and can be installed in public areas with high traffic.

CHEMICAL RESISTANCE: when the acid resistance of the tiles is higher than 97%, it is recommended to use it for cladding chemical laboratories. For everyday life, the reaction to alkalis is no less important. Turkish granite has both of these characteristics at the highest level: chemical resistance class - AA. Therefore, when caring for tiles, you can use any household detergents, including concentrated ones.

CONCLUSION OF THE LABORATORY: "Sahara" tiles produced by Toprak are made of a homogeneous material. Has a perfectly flat surface and calibrated geometric dimensions. High strength and low abrasion allow it to be used for cladding rooms with high traffic.

The tile has low water absorption, therefore it is allowed for use in rooms with high humidity. Insensitive to aggressive environments. Has acid resistance at the level of requirements for finishing materials for chemical laboratories.

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