HOW DO YOU DETERMINE HOW MUCH CLADDING YOU WILL NEED?
For cladding, as a rule, two types of elements are used:
The surface area to be coated is calculated by multiplying the length of the surface to be covered by the height. Then the area of windows, doors, openings and other surfaces not to be clad is subtracted from the result.
The required number of corner pieces is calculated by adding the lengths of the outer corners to be clad.
The calculation result is quite accurate, but it is always necessary to have some additional quantities of corner and flat elements. The recommended margin is from 5-10%.
HOW TO PREPARE THE SURFACE BEFORE INSTALLATION?
For external work:
When working with wooden surfaces, you must first install the waterproofing material. After installing the waterproofing, a plaster mesh is attached to the surface, which must necessarily have protection against corrosion, as well as the fastening material. The distance between the fasteners vertically is 10-15 cm, horizontally –35-40 cm. On the inner and outer corner surfaces, the mesh is installed in two layers. A layer of plaster mortar with a thickness of about 1 cm is worn on top of the mesh. Before installing the cladding, the plaster must be dried.
For metal surfaces, brick and concrete painted walls, the preparation procedure differs from the preparation of wooden surfaces in that it does not require the installation of waterproofing.
When facing walls made of unpainted brick or reinforced concrete, they must first be plastered.
For internal work:
When cladding interior surfaces with cladding material, you can use standard adhesive for gluing ceramic tiles to concrete, brick, or plastered surfaces for interior use.
Attention! Scribble and plaster on painted or whitewashed concrete surfaces. The artificial stone is placed on a dry surface.
HOW TO PREPARE Masonry mortar?
There are two ways to lay the cladding: with jointing and without jointing. Each of them has its own masonry mortar:
When installing facing with jointing, mix by volume:
2 parts Portlandciment;
1 part lime;
5-7 parts of medium fraction sand;
dyes (if necessary, make seams in color);
add the required amount of water.
For seamless veneering, mix by volume:
2 parts of Portland cement;
1 part lime;
7 parts of medium size sand;
PVA glue, or masonry glue (a special type of glue, usually used for laying ceramic tiles), dilute in a volumetric state 1: 1 with water and add the resulting mixture solution (instead of water).
The amount of Portland cement can vary depending on its brand and quality.
In addition to these simple adhesives, we recommend professional adhesives and grouting.
HOW TO INSTALL THE CLADDING?
In order to have a complete understanding of the choice of cladding elements and to facilitate their subsequent installation, we recommend that you lay at least two meters of square material on the floor next to the prepared surface before starting work. For the most natural look, alternate elements in size, thickness, color and texture during installation. Use several packs of cladding at the same time If you have preferred a cladding with jointing, we recommend a tile gap of 8-10 mm. For no seam lining, lay the elements from the bottom up, pressing the upper rows against the lower ones.
Start with the corner pieces. Lay them alternating between short and long sides. Apply a layer of masonry mortar about 1.5 cm thick to the back of the cladding element. Press the cladding element against the wall and rotate it slightly to achieve the best fixing, while the grout must be squeezed out from all sides of the installed element.
In the case of seamless masonry, special attention must be paid to ensure that the end joints of the facing elements are filled with a thin layer of mortar. For this:
1) the solution must be applied entirely on the entire reverse side of the facing element, so that during installation, the excess is squeezed out along the edges;
2) immediately after installation, using a trowel, remove excess mortar, leaving, however, its thin layer from the end. It is also possible to apply a thin layer of mortar to the ends using a special bag filled with mortar. If the cladding is installed on a very dry surface or the weather is hot and dry, it is recommended to pre-moisten the elements and the surface to be installed using a spray gun or a paint brush. The entire cladding can be dropped in a bucket of water. After wetting, allow the moisture to absorb for 2 minutes.
In the case of seamless masonry, the procedure for moisturizing the facing elements must be carried out regardless of weather conditions.
If solution gets on the cladding during installation. Remove it only after drying.
WHAT IS SEAMING AND HOW IT IS CARRIED OUT
Joints are filled with cement mortar in order to seal and give the masonry a more aesthetic appearance. It is recommended to use the same mortar as the mortar for the jointing that you used for the facing.
Joining is carried out using a special bag for filling the joints with mortar. The diameter of the outlet should be slightly less than the width of the joints between the cladding elements. Squeeze the mortar out slowly, carefully fill the joints with it. Be careful not to get the mortar on the cladding. When the mortar has set, use a wooden or metal tool to remove the excess while tamping down the seams.
After removing excess mortar for final smoothing and polishing of the joints, they must be swept out with a broom made of plant materials or plastic. Never use wire brush and solvents to clean the cladding!
Sewing joints is a very important stage in the performance of work. Its result should be a complete exclusion of the possibility of moisture getting under the installed cladding, otherwise, when freezing, the masonry and the cladding itself may be destroyed.
COMPLETION OF WORK
Attention! After the completion of the tile laying, it is necessary to treat its entire surface with a stiff brush (vinyl) to remove mortar, dust, salt film, to develop color saturation (the tile has an internal color of concrete). The tile takes on the shade and shine of natural stone. Then apply a waterproof coating.
After the masonry is completely dry, you can treat it with special protective hydrophobic compounds that form an elastic semi-permeable membrane on the surface. Such a coating does not deteriorate from thermal movements of the house, reflects water, protects against the effects of solar radiation and acid rain. Such protection is especially needed in case of temperature extremes, sweating and other influences that can spoil or contaminate the lining. Be sure to treat the cladding if it is installed in swimming pools, fireplaces, or where it may be exposed to dirt or corrosive environments. In addition, the treated surface acquires deeper color shades, is much easier to clean, which greatly facilitates its maintenance.
We recommend using a water-repellent concrete coating. It gives the stone a matte shade (the coating is designed for 5 years) or polyurethane varnish on concrete and stone, it does not wear off and gives the stone a rich color and shine. One liter of coating is designed for 10 square meters of surface.