Table of contents:
- Stationary pools
- Installation of a stationary pool
- Stationary pool cover
- Collapsible pools
- Assembling the frame pool structure
- Whirlpools SPA
- Water care
- Pool equipment
- Three piping systems for pools
- How to choose a pool?
Video: How To Make A Pool
2023 Author: Douglas Hoggarth | [email protected]. Last modified: 2023-05-24 11:23
- Stationary pools
- Installation of a stationary pool
- Stationary pool cover
- Collapsible pools
- Assembling the frame pool structure
- Whirlpools SPA
- Water care
- Pool equipment
- Three piping systems for pools
- How to choose a pool?
So, having weighed all the pros and cons, let's start setting up a home pool. But first, let's find out what kind of pool we need.
By design, pools can be divided into three main types.
Stationary - the strongest and most durable pools - as a rule, with a reinforced concrete bowl installed on the foundation in a specially dug pit. They can be of different depths and sizes.
Collapsible - pools for those who are prone to change. They can be installed on the ground or buried in the ground. In the first case, installation and dismantling takes no more than an hour. In the second - about a day. These pools are less durable than stationary ones, as their bowl is made of PVC. But much cheaper. Dimensions and shape are available on request.
The spa is a self-contained, portable (1.5 to 2.5 m long and 2.5 m and 60 to 140 cm deep) hydromassage pool. Designed not for swimming, but for relaxation. It does not need to be built, installed - the Spa is sold ready-to-use.
Spa - hydromassage pools. Translated from English, spa means mineral water, a spring. There is also a healing mineral spa at the spa of the same name in Belgium.
Piping - pool piping system (water inlet and outlet).
Embedment - the inside of the pool service part - skimmer, lighting, counterflow, hydromassage.
The nozzle is the outer part of the insert located on the inner surface of the pool.
A skimmer is a water surface drain device that regulates the water level in the pool.
Counterflow is a device that creates an artificial current.
Swimming complexes, baths and saunas are equipped with such pools. They are considered to be the most durable pools. The stationary pool consists of a concrete foundation and a reinforced concrete bowl. Moreover, the bowl is poured into a monolith, and reinforcement is laid in the walls and bottom of the bowl for strength (the diameter of the metal rod is 12-13 mm). The inner surface of the pool is lined with a waterproofing coating (tiles, mosaics, PVC foil). The installation of such a pool is a painstaking task. If you follow the technology, construction will take 3 - 4 months. But the pool will last for 50 years for sure, or even more, and even bathing an elephant will survive. Stationary pools are more suitable for public use (again, due to the fact that not all houses, but only reinforced concrete hospitals are capable of withstanding such a colossus). Such a pool requires constant care, you need to clean it about once a month and monitor the condition of the water (see below). And about once every 5 years, it is advisable to do cosmetic repairs (renew the coating, for example).
But, equipping just such a pool, you can show your design skills. Would you like your pool bowl to be shaped like a flower, star or stepped polygon? Explain these dreams to the master, he will tell you whether you can or not. In general, a fixed pool is suitable for those who value art, strength and durability, who are patient and a little conservative.
Installation of a stationary pool
The first step is to determine a suitable location for the pool. It should be selected depending on the proximity of groundwater. If water already appeared at a depth of 0.5-1 m, it means that the zone is problematic, and it is not recommended to build a stationary pool. But you can install the pool not in the house, but in the so-called "room independent of the main building" - in other words, in the annex. It can be built specifically for the pool, that is, with a separate foundation area.
But there is another option. You can disassemble the floor in the selected room and make a depression in the foundation of the house. But this method is undesirable, since cracks may form in the house when "drilling a hole". And if groundwater is close, it can erode the foundation. It is also important that the walls of the bowl do not touch the walls of the house: the capacity of even a small pool (2 x 3 x 1.5 m) is about 10 tons. The water will press on the walls, they will be covered with cracks, and the house will "float". Therefore, between the walls of the house and the actual "body" of the pool, you need to leave gaps by laying them with gaskets (foam) or covered with sand.
An original technology for the construction of a stationary pool: a bowl made of blocks is lined with waterproofing material.
The smaller section will have a sauna pool
Next, the most crucial stage is the manufacture of a concrete monolithic bowl. It is better that the concrete has a high coefficient of water absorption (the higher the coefficient, the less the concrete absorbs moisture). For example, W-8 - this concrete has a less porous structure than conventional W-6, and will not absorb much water. It is important that the location of all embedded, holes for nozzles (closing parts on pipes and other devices that are installed on the inner surface of the pools) are thought out in advance, then you will not have to drill concrete for another hole for the lamp.
Concrete is poured into a prepared pit with a foundation and fittings - these are the walls and bottom of the pool. It is important that the bowl is poured immediately and not in parts. A pool made of multiple layers is very unreliable. Before the concrete hardens, it is necessary to "knock out" air bubbles from it. This is done using special vibrating hammers.
The bowl should dry for a month, only occasionally it needs to be watered with water so that there are no cracked cracks. The surface should be flat, without noticeable depressions and bumps.
But you can do it easier. Some firms, at the request of the customer, use caissons - metal plates - to form the bowl formwork: one plate adjoins directly to the ground, the second serves as the inner wall of the bowl. Concrete is poured into the space between the two plates - for the strength of the structure. This method is, of course, cheaper, but such a bowl will have seams. The seams, however, are then sealed and welded, but this is a certain risk: problems with sealing can be revealed at the most inopportune moment. Experts say that nothing is better and more reliable than a monolithic concrete bowl.
In addition, it is important to maintain a safe distance from the pool area to the electrical wiring shields. For greater safety, you can decorate the walls of the room with facing materials that do not absorb moisture and do not allow moisture to pass through: tiles, PVC film or glass mosaic.
Stationary pool cover
This stationary pool, lined with porcelain tiles, will last for decades
So, the bowl is aligned, now it needs to be plastered. The plaster does not always adhere well to the surface, it can peel off over time. This will not happen with waterproof repair compounds. For example, Italian "Resisto Unifix", "Resisto Tixo" or plaster mortar with latex additives "Collasil" and "Latiflex", which increase the water resistance and elasticity of the plaster.
Then the surface is covered with a waterproofing layer - a special material with water-repellent ability. For the inner surface of the concrete bowl, it is recommended to use the "Osmosil" coating waterproofing material. It is applied in two layers on a damp concrete or plastered surface with a brush. The third layer is special glue. Adhesives with latex additives "Superbond", "Fleckbond", "Jeniustrong", "Elastobond" are considered good adhesives for swimming pools. These Index adhesives adhere well even to materials as difficult to adhere as glass.
It is important that the distances between the tiles are larger than when facing a conventional wall, and the glue and grout paste are more plastic. Here's the point. When the pool is filled with water, the walls sag a few millimeters under the pressure of the water mass. If the glue and grout are hard and the distance between the tiles is small, the coating will not withstand the load and will be covered with microcracks. There are two types of grout that meet these requirements: the Fugopox epoxy compound and the Fugokolor cement-based grout with Fugosil additive. Modern grouting materials have a wide color palette, so you can choose a shade for a tile or, conversely, a contrasting one.
Tiles, mosaics, PVC foil and special decorative coatings are laid on the surface of the finally dried concrete.
Pool tiles: Turkish (left) and Spanish (right)
Tile. There is a special porcelain tile for swimming pools. For example, the products of the Turkish company Sera Pool and Italian Casetti. Price - from 25 to 35 $ per sq.m. Porcelain tiles are of a higher density (than ceramic tiles) and absorb moisture much less (by the way, the water absorption coefficient of tiles for swimming pools should be no more than 3%). Simple tiles - for bathrooms, floors and walls - will not work: ceramics with ordinary enamel have a porous structure. That is, it absorbs water faster and becomes a "breeding ground" for microorganisms and algae. In addition, porcelain tiles have high heat resistance, frost resistance, good plasticity (the possibility of bending is at least 27 sq. Mm, otherwise the tiles may crack when the pool is filled with water). It is easier to clean - it does not "absorb" dirt.
It is easy to slip in the pool, so you need to pay attention to the anti-slip ability of the tiles. You should buy not glossy, but corrugated tiles with a rough surface.
Glass mosaic "bizazza" has all the necessary properties to resist the water element
Mosaic is considered one of the most reliable and durable materials. There are two types of mosaics: glass and ceramic. The latter is absolutely similar in composition to tiles, therefore the principles and conditions for laying them are the same (see above).
Mosaic made of glass is considered the best - it is stronger than ceramic and does not absorb water at all. It is believed that the highest quality mosaics are produced by the companies "Bisazza" and "Giaretta". There are French and Turkish factories that produce mosaics, but experts believe that its quality is worse than the Italian one.
The price of one square meter of the "bizazza" mosaic is from $ 24 to $ 146. But such a mosaic is worth it. First, you can create almost any ornament or even a painting. Secondly, the size of the mosaic (from 1 x 1 to 5 x 5 sq. Cm) allows you to revet any curved surfaces and corners inaccessible, for example, tiles. And thirdly, mosaic is the most reliable and durable, non-porous material that has all the necessary properties to resist the water element.
Now about the styling. First, as well as for tiles, the concrete surface is plastered, covered with waterproofing materials (the same as under the tiles). Then glue is applied with a special notched trowel, and it is important that the length of these teeth is 0.35 cm (for tiles, a trowel with longer teeth is used). The work is facilitated by the so-called "matrices" - paper sheets or fiberglass nets measuring 322 x 322 sq. Mm, on which the mosaic squares are glued with the front side. Then the sheets, one by one, are pressed with the mosaic to the surface with the adhesive applied, and the paper remains on the surface. Then the sheets are moistened and they peel off easily. But we warn you: only a specialist can perform this painstaking work.
PVC film for swimming pools is easy to clean and does not "catch" microorganisms
PVC foil is a new coating for swimming pools. This lightweight material is a good waterproofing agent, cheaper than ceramic tiles and mosaics. Thickness - from 1 to 1.5 mm. Usually consists of four layers. Between the second and third layers is a mesh fabric made of polyester or Kevlar (a very durable synthetic material, from which, by the way, bulletproof vests are sewn). The film is highly resistant to UV rays and chemicals. This coating does not require special care, is easy to clean, microorganisms do not "cling" to it. The top layer of the film is rough, you will not slip on it.
Price per square meter of film - from $ 10 to $ 40 without styling. In our market, PVC film is offered by the companies "Markopul", "Papilons", "Aqualand", "Alcorplan", "Konrais".
How to stack it? Wall surfaces must be carefully sanded, otherwise the film may rub off. When renovating old or tiled swimming pools that have problems with waterproofing, it is possible to lay the film directly onto the tiles. But, however, you need to be sure that the tiles will not peel off.
Option for cladding the interior of fixed pools with Alkorplan
(at the same time it is also a waterproofing agent)
First, the so-called fastening strip is laid: a metal tape 2 m long, 5-6 cm wide, 2 mm thick. A plastic coating is applied to it on one side, a film is welded to it. The fixing strip is attached to the pool surface with screws. If the bottom of the pool has a complex shape (steep slopes, multi-level structure), it is necessary to fix it on the bottom in order to avoid the movement of the bottom film sheets. After all, it does not stick to the surface, but simply wraps around the pool from the inside and is pressed tightly by the water. Geotextile is laid under the film - a non-woven polymer fabric with a thickness of 0.5 to 1 cm, similar to felt. It protects the film from damage and condensation. The edges of the film are welded with hot air, then rubbed with liquid plastic for maximum sealing.
Laying (work, film, geotextile) will cost $ 45-50 per square meter.
- durability (minimum guarantee 50 years);
- the ability to create your own design for the shape of the pool, cover, decoration.
- being built together with the house;
- restrictions in choosing a place - a separate room (or building) is required. The pool should not touch the walls of the house and be built on the foundations of the house. Unacceptable in urban apartments;
- the need to carry out cosmetic repairs from time to time;
- there is no possibility to install additional devices - lighting, massage nozzles and other "attractions" (the concrete bowl of the pool is poured out immediately, taking into account all the holes for the nozzles).
Question: Can the pool bowl be painted with decorative paint?
Answer: Many decorative paints are really waterproof and flexible enough. But even a very durable decorative coating is unlikely to withstand an aggressive environment and chemical additives necessary for water purification.
The collapsible pool can be installed on the surface, or it can be deepened into the ground
It is actually a lightweight stainless steel frame structure. Frames are of two types: rod and sheet. The side of the frame is solid, made of a solid metal sheet, with a rod only has an upper hoop assembled from metal rods. The frames are mounted on steel supports. A more durable frame is considered to be sheet. The bowls are made of PVC film. The same one that is lined with stationary pools.
Such a pool can be easily transported in the trunk of a car and installed anywhere without preliminary preparation. The only condition is a flat area on which the pool will stand. The structure is assembled in one hour without tools and is simply filled with water. And it is just as easy to disassemble. They say that such pools are a child of the American military technology for quickly building pontoon bridges. The requirements here are the most stringent: reliability, portability, quick assembly and disassembly, and the possibility of transportation. The appropriate material was chosen - vinyl, reinforced with Kevlar. In general, it turned out to be quite solid construction.
Such a pool can be deepened into the ground or installed on the surface. Can I put it in an apartment? Alas, despite the strength of the material, you can still cut or puncture it. The company told the story of how a newlywed, in full wedding parade, plunged into such a pool, and the bride cut through the PVC with his heel. Therefore, it is better not to risk it and install such a pool outdoors, and not indoors.
Assembling the frame pool structure
The sheet frame must be assembled by a master. A rolled metal sheet is unrolled and given the desired size and shape - oval or round. The rectangular basin is made up of several sheets, the edges of the sheets being screwed together and sealed with latex materials. A plastic bag is put on the finished side of the pool - a bowl in which all seams are soldered by high-voltage electric welding. Then the equipment is installed: a pump and a filter.
A rod pool is a set of vertical and horizontal racks with fasteners, a plastic bowl-bag and a filter unit with a pump. You can collect it yourself. First you need to insert the vertical ribs of the pool into the special sleeves in the bowl bag. Then the horizontal racks are installed, fixing them with the vertical ones with the help of grooves-fasteners. The bowl is stretched. After that, a pipeline with a pump and a filter is installed by screwing it into special holes in the bowl. We recommend wrapping flexible joints with Teflon insulation (just in case). And that's all - you can fill it with water.
- ease and speed of assembly and disassembly (you can keep within an hour);
- ease of transportation (when folded it is transported in the trunk);
- portability (the pool can be disassembled and hidden in the closet);
- easy to clean, can be cleaned with any detergent (except abrasive).
- the film can be accidentally torn or burned;
- no heating unit is included, so raising the water temperature at home is almost impossible.
Spa is a special kind of pool - for water "gourmets" who love to soak up the jets of massage geysers. You don't need to build or install it: buy and use it. Pools The spa is small, rather a very large bath. The depth is usually less than a meter, but there are also deeper ones. For example, the American company "Cal Spas" produces Spas mainly in depths of 1 and 1.3 meters. Besides it, the American firms "Sundance Spas" and "Hot Spring" also produce Spas.
The bottom of the Spa is adapted for comfortable seating, and the body itself assumes a "reclining" or "sitting" position, depending on which type of massage is chosen. Above each seat, there are special massage jets with different effects. Comfortable seats are located at different levels, that is, both adults and children will feel comfortable. There is a difference between the spa jets and the so-called jacuzzi jets. In the pools, a special healing power of pressure is maintained - two atmospheres, while in ordinary whirlpools there is rarely more than one. In addition, the jacuzzi has regular tap water, while in the Spa it is filtered to the drinking level.
The pool body is made of acrylic resins using a technology that completely eliminates the risk of delamination. The acrylic surface is not afraid of chemicals, fats and bacteria, it is resistant to ultraviolet and heat radiation, and does not fade. In addition, it is pleasant to the touch and not slippery.
The water in the Spa is filtered continuously. The entire volume of water passes through the filters, the pump runs without noise or interruption. A special tank holds cartridge filters. The Spa has a tube for silvering water and a water purification system using an ozone lamp. All the equipment that "includes" the pool is hidden in its body. The built-in computer with a control panel constantly maintains the desired temperature - 37 - 39 ° C (the therapeutic effect of the massage decreases if the temperature is above or below normal).
The power consumption of all Spas is 3.5-5.5 kW.
- wear resistance and strength;
- compactness and portability: does not require assembly;
- ease of care: washable by any means;
- heat resistance and frost resistance;
- comfort, health-improving effect.
- high price;
- a large pool for 6 - 7 persons is difficult to enter through a standard doorway.
Our tap water contains many bacteria and harmful chemical compounds. Therefore, before pouring water, it is necessary to pass it through a purification plant in order to remove iron and equalize the acidity level. If there is no such apparatus, the water passing through the filter should settle for several days. In addition, cleaning agents need to be added. The acidity of the water in the pool should be 1.5 units higher than the acidity level of human skin - 5.5 pH. That is, the acidity of the water should be in the range of 7.2 - 7.4 pH.
Everyone is familiar with one of the methods of water purification - chlorination. It is this reagent that is today the main component of the entire water treatment industry. The threshold value below which the presence of chlorine becomes noticeable and to which one should strive is 0.3 - 0.4 mg / l. There are many chlorine-based products available. They can be in the form of a powder, in the form of slow-dissolving (chlorilong, chlorofixstab) or fast-dissolving tablets (chloriclar).
However, chlorine alone is not enough to fight microorganisms and harmful bacteria. Therefore, water is purified in another way. For example, a tube with an ultraviolet lamp is mounted in the harness. Its radiation also kills germs. You can use ozone radiation, it fights well with polluted water. The ozone lamp is also inserted into the harness.
There is also algae control. They can be easily recognized by the slippery walls of the pool and the greenish color of the water. They fight them with algicides. Preparations based on them, such as dizalgin, kill blue-green algae and prevent their reproduction. If the water retains an alarming turbidity, it is quite possible that there are many tiny particles of dirt in the pool that the filter could not "hold". In such cases, coagulants are added to the water, for example, the drug dinafloc.
Please note: Water care products must be used separately. Never mix them, as an unexpected chemical reaction may occur. You need to constantly monitor and care for the water. Add the required reagents once a week. And remember that if the pool is filled with too hot water, the "living creatures" multiply exponentially.
Strapping. How does the pool water change? It happens like this. From one pipe, clean water is drawn into the reservoir, and through the other pipe, it is poured into the sewer. At the assumed level of the water surface there is a hole, the so-called skimmer, which prevents water from overflowing and where all the dirt from the surface is drained.
Some pools have the same layout. However, in order to save money and to achieve maximum water purity through filtration, the pools are mainly equipped with a closed pipe system. That is, water, getting into the drain nozzle or skimmer, goes through a pipe directly to the filter (it is pumped there by the pump), and from there, purified, goes through another pipe back to the pool. These inlet and outlet pipes are referred to as "piping" for convenience. The circulation of water in a circle occurs constantly, if the pump is not turned off.
Filters. The "motor" of a stationary basin is a filter unit with a pump. This is what makes an ordinary "pond" a pool. So we do not recommend saving on this, and it will not work. The water, circulating through the pipes, is drawn into the filter by the pump and leaves it "rejuvenated", purified. And this happens countless times.
Usually the company that builds the pool offers everything already in the kit. But knowledge will not hurt. For example, remember: there are cartridge and sand filters. In cartridge filtering elements are polypropylene membranes, these filters are small, take up little space, and it is convenient to "hide" them somewhere near the pool. In order not to spoil the general view of the pool with their "machine" look.
In sand filters, quartz calcined sand purifies the water. These filters are very heavy and large. Sand filters are commonly used for large pools. For low-volume, it is better to purchase a cartridge.
A sand filter can be selected by calculating the required performance for water purification. There is one rule that all standards obey: the entire volume of water must pass through the filter 2.5 times in 10 hours. Performance is calculated using the following "formula": multiply the volume by 2.5 and divide by 10 hours. For example, you have installed a pool with a volume of 30 tons (3 x 5 x 2 m). The result is 7.5 cubic meters per hour. This figure is the recommended filter performance for your pool.
The market for pool filtration units is not as wide as it might seem. The most popular are German filters "Dinotek" and "Unipul". The price for sandy ones is from 420 to 2300 dollars. Cartridge filters - from $ 280-590.
Three piping systems for pools
1. Without piping, that is, without inlet and outlet pipes. There are also stationary (concrete, firmly dug into the ground) and collapsible. Water is poured simply from a hose or, at worst, from a bucket. But it is recommended to swim in them immediately after the flood of water. Then your pond will "bloom" and become a refuge for frogs.
2. With piping, with pipes of the bay from the water supply and discharge into the sewer. Such pools are only stationary, because the plumbing device requires reliable strengthening. The principle of operation is the same as for a regular bath. The volume of the average pool (4 x 6 x 1.5 m) is 36 tons. I must say, this is quite uneconomical. Therefore, pools of this type are a thing of the past.
3. Pools with piping, but without drain and bay pipes. Once filled, the water circulates in a circle through the cleaning filter using a pump. Public pools operate on the same principle, and in general, due to their ease of use, they are considered the most common. It is these pools that are now the main ones, they dominate the market, and they are in high demand. Such pools are collapsible, stationary and hydromassage - Spa.
How to choose a pool?
First. If the pool will be installed in a country house, you can choose any: stationary, collapsible or Spa. If you want to "fit" the pool into a city apartment, then there can be no question of a stationary structure (reinforced concrete, firmly built-in) - even if you live on the ground floor and in a very large apartment, the floors are unlikely to withstand (for example, the weight of the pool with water measuring 3 x 7 x 1.5 m, with a total area of 58 square meters - 31 tons!).
Second. You need to know exactly how you want to use it. If for swimming, you need a large room: you need a pool 6 - 8 meters long.
In a city apartment, you can safely put a Spa, the only small type of swimming pool that does not need to be assembled, but you just need to drag it through the door or through the window.
Third. An important question that arises when choosing a pool is, of course, financial. The most expensive for the cost of materials and work is a stationary pool. The approximate price of an average (3 x 6 x 1.5 m) pool is $ 5,000. It should be noted that the price may vary depending on the coating (film or tile) from 3500 to 8000 $. And the pool, lined, for example, with the mosaic "bizazza", will cost at least $ 30,000. $ 2,000 is the approximate cost of the bowl.
Expensive plaster materials and waterproofing should not be replaced with cheaper ones. This can affect the quality of the pool. In addition, it is better to use the services of professional craftsmen. You know yourself: a miser pays twice.
The spa pool is also quite expensive. But then there is no need to worry about its construction. The highest price of such a pool is $ 17,000, and the simplest ones cost from $ 4,000.
The most loyal in the pricing policy is the collapsible pool. Its cost will increase if you deepen it into the ground. And if it is installed on the surface, the entire structure will cost (depending on the size and frame) from $ 700 to $ 5000.
How long will the pool last? The guarantee period for a stationary pool is at least 50 years, for a collapsible pool - a year (if not disassembled), for a Spa - more than 15 years.
Well, that's probably all. So which should you choose? Of course, the most reliable and most durable pool is the stationary one. But if the house has already been built or you just do not want to start a "construction of the century", but still want to swim heartily, get a collapsible pool. Such pools are comfortable, easy to use, but, alas, you cannot put them indoors. This means that swimming will be possible only next summer. (Although we recommend buying in advance, for example, right now!) But do not forget: it is better to collect it only once. Due to too frequent assembly-disassembly, the walls (pillars) are deformed, and after dismantling it will be very difficult to restore them.
And if you want to have your own (home) hot geyser, then at your service are the spa's hydromassage pools - compact and comfortable "masseurs" for body and soul.