In Russia, cable electric heating systems, more commonly known as "warm floors", appeared relatively recently, and this European novelty quickly gained popularity. This is understandable: in a harsh climate, when, with the onset of cold weather, people begin to take the most energetic measures to insulate their homes, such a comfortable and relatively inexpensive way of heating inevitably attracts attention. (Note that in addition to electric cable, there are two more ways to heat floors: a polymer pipe through which hot water circulates, and using panel infrared heaters. We are not considering them today).
What, it would seem, is lacking for the owners of most apartments in multi-storey residential buildings equipped with a centralized heating system? There are pipes, there are radiators, there is hot water circulating in them. However, such a system does not always provide a comfortable temperature regime in the apartment. This happens for various reasons: the area of the heating batteries is small, the water temperature in the radiators is low, the location of the apartment is unfavorable. Finally, the main drawback of the traditional system: powerful convection air currents carry heat from the radiators upwards, heating the ceiling and leaving the floor in the apartment cold. That is why the legs are freezing: it seems that the apartment is not cold, but somehow chilly. Owners of cottages have their own problems - they need to stock up on firewood, coal, diesel fuel or have central gas, equip a special room for the furnace. "Warm floors "in country houses often replace traditional types of heating. And in houses and apartments they are used both for main heating and for heating individual rooms - most often bathrooms, kitchens, corridors. Cable heating creates a comfortable thermal regime in which temperature at floor level is 22-24 C ?, and at head level - 18-20 C ?.
The basis of the system is a heating cable, the metal core of which is "wrapped" in a variety of Teflon, polyethylene, metal and other heat-resistant casings. Reflective foil insulation and heating cable are laid on the floor. The latter is connected to the thermostat, and then to the mains. All this is covered with a cement screed, and after about a month - with a floor covering.
The temperature on the surface of a working heating cable should not exceed 70 C ?, and on the floor surface - 26-28 C ?. The thermostat maintains the set temperature, taking into account the heat from sunlight, hot water, heat leakage through doors, windows and crevices. The most advanced thermostats can be programmed for a day or a week. For example, the system will automatically lower the temperature by a couple of degrees at night or reduce it to a minimum during the daytime on weekdays, when the owners are at work, warming up to a maximum only an hour before they arrive. This can significantly reduce power consumption. It is estimated that for comfortable heating, the design power is on average 100-120 W / sq. m.
Usually the material for "warm floor" flooring raises questions - which one to give preference to, and how will it behave in a "non-standard situation"? With parquet and parquet boards, you need to be very careful, choose wood species that are resistant to drying, preferably oak. The parquet board must be laid in a floating way, that is, the panels must be fastened to each other, and not to the floor. In this case, the floor heating system must function so that the temperature on the parquet surface is the same at all points and does not exceed 27 ° C. About PVC coatings (including linoleum), experts say that this is the most optimal coating option in a situation where the floor is partially heated. The entire area of laminate can only be laid on floors with a water heating system,and then with the fulfillment of a number of technological conditions. Carpets made of polypropylene, polyester and nylon with a special backing are well suited, but provided that the air humidity is at least 20%. The best option is considered to be ceramic tiles, for this business even special tiles with increased thermal conductivity are produced. This material is not afraid of high temperature and its drops, because its main test - firing in a furnace - has already passed.because its main test - kiln firing - has already passed.because its main test - kiln firing - has already passed.
The cost of a "warm floor" consists of the price of a cable, mounting tape, insulation, a thermostat (in each room of its own), sensors and some other details. On average, the cost of a device per square meter is 20-25 dollars. Added to this is the installation cost. The benefits are clear. These are economy - high efficiency with relatively low energy costs (compared to traditional heating, it reduces its consumption by 20-25 percent), durability, noiselessness, environmental safety. Autonomy - does not depend on the heating season. Compactness - does not take up space, is part of the house and does not need additional space, does not require a significant increase in the thickness of the floor. Its level rises by 15-20 mm, but there are also "thin" floors,the design of which allows you to raise the level by only 2.5-3 mm.
The heated floor is just one of the possibilities of the heating cable, it has found many other useful uses.
Heating of open areas. The need for this arises when it gets cool. The pool lanes or tennis court can be heated so that you can play outdoors all year round. When the snow falls, you can easily walk and drive to the cottage if the paths are heated. You can limit yourself only to the track for the passage of cars and the steps of the porch.
Prevention of freezing of pipelines and containers. There is a reason to pay attention to this possibility for the owners of houses with water supply systems from an artesian well or well. As long as there is a water intake, everything is in order, but if you do not use it for some time, then the water in the pipes, as well as in the boiler and expansion tank, will freeze - with all the ensuing consequences. And if you install a self-regulating heating cable along the pipe, then it will not allow this sad event to happen. Thanks to a temperature sensor installed directly on the pipe, the system will turn on and off automatically.
Preventing the formation of ice on the roof. In other words, "a roof without icicles." Frost usually has to be removed by a rough mechanical method, which greatly damages the roof. Experts say that installing an anti-icing system is much cheaper than repairing a roof every year.
DE-VI (Denmark), TEPLOLUX (Russia), CEILHIT (Spain), KIMA (Sweden), NOKIA (Finland), ALCATEL (Norway) are among the main manufacturers of heating cables on the Russian market. All well-known cables are extremely durable. They are usually guaranteed for 10-16 years. And during all this time, no maintenance or repairs are required. This equipment is relatively new and raises safety concerns among customers. Manufacturers claim that in fact, such strict fire safety requirements are imposed on heating cables that, if properly installed, they are much less dangerous than an iron. In addition, the system is usually equipped with a leakage current relay or residual current device. The service life and reliability of the system are primarily determined by the quality of the heating element,reliability of automation and the qualifications of the craftsmen who installed the system. It is clear that only professionals can competently mount it. Imagine yourself in such a house. No fire hazard, no dampness, no drafts. Comfort, in a word.