The electrical wiring should be laid according to the developed plan. The basis of this document, which later will make your life easier, is based on two principles: electrical safety and ease of use.
Things to consider when developing a plan:
1. Electric meters, junction boxes, sockets and switches must be located in places accessible for maintenance and repair, and live parts must be covered.
2. The switches are located at the entrance to the room at a height of 1.5 m so that the open front door does not block access to them. For convenience, switches in one apartment are usually located in all rooms on the same side.
3. Sockets are installed in the places of the proposed installation of electrical equipment at a height of 50-80 cm from the floor level. According to fire regulations, the number of outlets should be at least one for every complete and incomplete 6 square meters of the area of the room, and in the kitchen at least three. The installation of switches and sockets inside toilets and bathrooms is prohibited.
Exceptions are shaver and hairdryer sockets powered by a double-insulated isolation transformer. The latter is mounted in a special block outside these premises. It is also forbidden to install sockets closer than 50 cm from grounded metal devices (pipes, batteries, sinks, gas and electric stoves). It is convenient to install sockets on the wall dividing two rooms of one apartment on each side of the wall, including them in parallel through the hole in the wall.
4. Wires are only laid along vertical and horizontal lines, and their location must be precisely known to avoid damage when drilling holes, hammering in nails, etc. Horizontal laying is carried out at a distance of 50-100 mm from the eaves and beams, 150 mm from the ceiling and 150-200 mm from the plinth. Vertically laid sections of wires must be removed from the corners of the room, window and door openings by at least 100 mm.
It must be ensured that the wire does not come into contact with the metal structures of the building. Parallel laying near pipelines with flammable substances (gas) is carried out at a distance of at least 400 mm. In the presence of hot pipelines (heating and hot water), the wiring must be protected from high temperatures by asbestos gaskets, or a wire with a protective coating must be used. It is forbidden to lay wires in bundles, as well as with a distance between them less than 3 mm.
5. In the premises, connections and branches of wires for all types of electrical wiring are performed in junction and branch boxes.
6. The conductors of the grounding and zero protective conductors are connected to each other by welding. The connection of these conductors to electrical appliances subject to grounding or neutralization is carried out with bolted connections.
The metal cases of electric stoves (stationary) are zeroed, for which a separate conductor is laid from the apartment panel with a cross-section equal to the cross-section of the phase conductor and is connected to the zero protective conductor of the supply network in front of the meter. Conductors providing protective earthing or earthing must be free of fuses and switches. Otherwise, when the protection is triggered, all devices included in this line will be under the dangerous potential of the network.
These are the main provisions on which to rely on when drawing up an apartment wiring plan. As you probably noticed, these rules are mainly related to electrical safety. Indeed, when working with electricity, one should not rely on chance and neglect them. Accuracy during work will save you from many troubles in the future.