Video: Enamels And Dry Paints
Colorful compositions prepared by grinding a mixture of pigments and varnishes on special paint mills.
Unlike oil paints, the pigment for them is rubbed on special paint mills and diluted not with drying oil, but with oil varnishes. These paints are marketed in a ready-to-use form. During long-term storage, they can thicken, therefore they are diluted with various solvents. They are recommended to paint walls in kitchens, bathrooms and other places with high humidity.
General purpose enamel GF-230 (glyphtalic) is intended for interior work, except for painting floors. Before use, it is diluted to a painting consistency with white spirit, turpentine or their mixture. It is produced in 21 colors: ivory, cream, lemon, etc. Opacity depends on the color and ranges from 30 to 130 g / m2. Apply by brush, roller or spray gun. Drying time - 24 hours. The guaranteed shelf life is 12 months from the date of manufacture.
Enamel PF-133 (pentaphthalic) is used for painting pre-primed or metal surfaces in 2 layers. In temperate climates, it retains its protective properties for at least five years. Before use, it is diluted to a paint consistency with solvent, xylene or a mixture of one of them with solvent gasoline. Produced in 15 colors: cream, green, blue, etc. It is applied with a brush or spray gun. Opacity depends on the color and ranges from 20 to 120 g / m2. Drying time - 2 hours.
PF-115 enamel is used for painting metal, wood and other materials that are exposed to atmospheric influences. It is applied in 2 layers. Retains protective properties in temperate climates for at least five years. Before use, it is diluted to a paint consistency with white spirit, turpentine or their mixture in a 1: 1 ratio. Manufactured in 24 colors: white, beige, yellow, etc. The opacity of the enamel depends on the color and ranges from 30 to 120 g / m2. Apply with a brush or spray gun. Drying time from 8 to 24 hours. The guaranteed shelf life is 12 months from the date of manufacture.
Enamel PF-223 is used for painting wood and metal indoors on the ground and without it. It is diluted to paint consistency with solvent gasoline, xylene, solvent or their mixture. Enamel is produced in 17 colors. Its hiding power depends on the color and ranges from 20 to 240 g / m2. The drying time of this enamel is from 30 to 36 hours. The guaranteed shelf life is 6 months from the date of manufacture.
Enamel PF-253 is intended for covering floors on prepared surfaces in 2 layers with a brush. Diluted with solvent gasoline or turpentine. Drying times are different, depending on the thickness of the applied layer and temperature conditions.
Enamel PF-126 is sold complete with a desiccant NF-1 (for 100 parts of the paint mass, 4 parts of the mass of a desiccant that accelerates hardening). It is applied by brush or roller in 2 layers with intermediate drying in 30 minutes. The surface is pre-primed with diluted enamel, thinner - white spirit.
Enamels GF-230 and PF-560 are available in different colors. The conditions for surface preparation and exposure are the same as for PF-126 enamel. Diluents - white spirit, turpentine, RS-2. You can add up to 5% desiccant (# 64).
Enamel for floor PF-226 over paints of this type (PF-253) has advantages in terms of hardness, water resistance, wear resistance, hiding power and drying time of the film. The enamel gives a shiny surface and dries completely in 24 hours.
FL-254 enamel is produced on phenolic oil varnish and is used for floor painting. Has higher quality indicators in comparison with pentaphthalic floor enamels in terms of drying speed, hardness, gloss, wear resistance.
White enamel PF-14 is produced especially for painting joinery (door windows). Its advantage is that the paint does not drip from vertical surfaces, it is easily applied with a brush or roller in 1 layer and dries at room temperature for 30 minutes.
Dry paints or pigments are finely ground powder that is diluted with binders to produce a ready-to-use paint. They are artificial and natural (mineral).
Most pigments can be used in waterborne paints, but not all in oils and enamels. Lime and chalk - only in water.
All types of pigments must be ground in such a way that when sifted through a fine sieve, they pass completely, without residue. The finer the pigments are ground, the higher their quality, and vice versa.
Dry paints do not change their color under the influence of sunlight, with repeated moistening and drying, as well as when exposed to alkalis. They have good hiding power, which is expressed by the quantitative pigment content (in grams) required to cover 1 sq. surface so that the underlying layer does not show through. The higher the hiding power of the pigment, the less it is required per 1 sq. surface.
To obtain a paint composition (color scheme) of a particular color or shade, one or more pigments have to be used. It should be remembered that it is not recommended to pour dry pigments into the paint compositions, since it is almost impossible to stir them well, as a result of which they will leave stripes on the painted surface. Therefore, the pigments are pre-soaked in water, mixed and filtered through a fine sieve. Then pour into the composition in a thin stream, stirring thoroughly.
Pigments come in a wide variety of colors
White pigments include lime, chalk, whitewash. Air lime is used for painting external and internal surfaces. Slaked lime can be mixed with pigments that will not change their color (ocher, umber, red lead, chromium oxide, soot, burnt bone; calcareous: blue, red, yellow). Slaked lime is used as a dough. Lump lime (boiling water) is quenched by pouring water (1 part of lime to 3 parts of water), everything is thoroughly mixed and filtered through a sieve. For work, lime is diluted with water until milk is thick.
Chalk is white with a yellowish or grayish tint and is available in the form of large lumps or ground. Each of these varieties has three varieties. For whitewashing, finely ground chalk is needed. It can be obtained from any coarse chalk in the following way: 1 part of chalk is poured with 3 parts of water, mixed thoroughly, filtered through a fine sieve, poured into another dish and left for settling. After the chalk settles, the water is drained and removed from above about half of it, dried, pounded and sieved through a fine sieve.
Whitewash - finely ground white powders, obtained by grinding calcined metallic zinc, lead carbonate, titanium ores, lithopone. White is used for the preparation of oil paints and putties. Hiding power of white is: titanium - 50-75 g / sq. M., Zinc - 100-110 g / sq. M., Lithopone - 120 g / sq. M., Lead - 200-300 g / sq. M.
Yellow pigments include ocher, crowns. Ocher is a yellow paint with various shades. Stable in all respects. If it is well calcined on a fire, it turns brownish-red and is called burnt ocher or black sheep. Spreading rate - 65-90 t / m. Crowns - paints from lemon to orange. Spreading rate - 110-190 g / m2
Blue pigments include ultramarine and azure. Ultramarine (blue) has green and blue hues. It is widely used in chalk and lime paint compositions. Spreading rate - 50 g / m2 Azure is a completely blue paint. It is used only in oil and enamel paints. Darkens from exposure to sunlight. To enhance color, it is added in small quantities to soot. Spreading rate - 10-60 g / sq.m..
Red pigments include red lead, red lead, mummy, and cinnabar. Iron red lead - brick-red paint. Spreading rate - 20 g / m2 Red lead - red-orange paint. It is poisonous, therefore it is not used for internal work. Spreading rate - 100 g / m2 Mummy - paint from light red to dark red. It happens artificial and natural, unstable. At first, it gives bright shades, but over time it darkens and becomes dark brown-red. Spreading rate - 30-60 g / sq. Cinnabar is a paint of different shades. Resistant to acids and alkalis, changes color when exposed to sunlight. Spreading rate - 80-120 g / m2
Green pigments include chrome greens, lead greens. Chromium greens (chromium oxides) are mixtures of yellow crowns with azure, and by changing the amount of azure in the mixture, you can get different shades. Spreading rate - 40 g / m2 Lead greens are a mixture of yellow and blue paints, in particular a yellow crown with azure. Spreading rate - 28-70 g / m2
Brown pigments include umber, burnt sienna. Brown is calm, restrained, evokes a feeling of warmth, contributes to the creation of a calm, soft mood, but some shades of it can cause dark thoughts. Umber is a brown paint with different shades. It turns reddish brown after firing. Its covering rate is 40 g / sq. Burnt sienna is close to ocher in its properties. It is mainly used for finishing various surfaces like oak or ash. Low covering power.
Black pigments include carbon black, manganese peroxide, charcoal and graphite. Soot - black paint - is produced by burning oil or gas. Lightweight, miscible only with oil, glue or soapy water. Spreading rate - 15 g / m2 Manganese peroxide is a natural mineral. Mixes well with water. Spreading rate - 40 g / m2 Charcoal and graphite, after being crushed and sieved through a clean sieve, can be used as black paint. Spreading rate of graphite - 30 g / m2
Metallic pigments include bronze and aluminum powders, which are mainly used for painting metals, as well as for painting. Their hiding power is 3-4 g / m2.
Pigments such as lamp soot, manganese peroxide, cinnabar, mummy, red lead, ocher, sienna, umber, chromium oxide, ultramarine, lemon, orange, scarlet and burgundy can be used in all paint formulations. The rest - only in glue and emulsion.