The well-known plane is just one of the representatives of the numerous family of tools for wood planing.
More and more widespread are planes with a metal block. They come with a single and double knife (called a piece of iron). If you have to use this tool quite often, then it is better to stock up on one more, replaceable piece of iron. Have another sharpened blade on hand. Then, in the midst of work, you will not have to be distracted by sharpening and fine-tuning it.
In fact, a plane is a simple and unpretentious tool, but over time you can make sure that everyone has their own character. To make it complaisant, the sole of the plane should be protected, and the piece of iron should be sharpened regularly, protected from nails and large knots. Along with a metal one, it is not bad to have a plane with a wooden block - there are many of them in stores. It is better to specialize him in the finishing of wood, for this he must have a so-called double piece of iron - with a chipbreaker. By the way, the width of the piece of iron in a typical plane is 50 mm.
For rough gouging, a scherhebel is used, the width of its gland is 35 mm, often rounded or set obliquely. A very useful tool for the initial processing of a board, a bar.
The sander is intended for cleaning planed surfaces in areas with structural defects in wood. It looks like a shortened plane with a double knife mounted steeper than a regular plane. They can peel off very thin chips on the surface - after gluing the parts. It is also used for removing sags, corner joints.
The jointer has long served the carpenter for finishing parts, especially long ones. Its length is almost three times longer than that of a conventional planer, the knife is wider than the planer - up to 65 mm. With the acquisition of some skills, a home craftsman will be able to process wooden parts with the help of a jointer. You should know that there is still a half-joiner, it is 10 -12 centimeters shorter, the width of its piece of iron, like a plane, is also good in business. When using these tools, remember that the main indicator of planing quality is the length of the chips. When you start to plan a new surface, the chips are intermittent. But as the surface is leveled, it becomes even, long, curly.
Among the carpentry tools, there are many quite specific ones. Over the past decades, they have been thoroughly replaced by planing, milling and other machines. But not every home craftsman needs (and can afford) these machines so much. But if you like to craft something with your own hands, then get hold of at least some hand tools. There are a lot of them on sale - both factory and handicraft. They can be useful when finishing work inside the house, when you want to re-process almost every edge or plane of the board with your own hands with love and care.
Grooves and strokes on the edges or layers of parts are selected using a grouser. This tool is especially good for punching and deburring a trapezoidal groove ('dovetail'). The grooves on the wooden parts are chosen with the help of a fillet - the sole of its last has a convex shape, but the molding with its multi-stage sole of the last and replaceable knives of various profiles is a rather professional tool, you hardly need it. Moreover, various decorative slats, decorated with the help of molding, are usually widely available for sale - this is a product of mechanical production.
You can also get a humpback - a plane with a curved or concave surface and a straight, like a regular plane, a blade, as well as purchase a shtap, in which the sole of the shoe and the knife have a concave, rounded shape.
It is possible that someday you will want to use a tongue and groove. This is a rather complex tool, consisting of two wooden halves, connected with screws chiseled from wood. They can choose a tongue in boards, slats, make a 'groove-comb' connection, but not curly, but rectangular. In addition to the wooden sheet pile, there may be a metal case. Such a modern tool is smaller, lighter and more versatile than an outdated wooden one. Very useful on the farm.
Zensubel and its close 'relative' falzgebel have a stepped sole. The developer may really need these tools in the case when the purchased window frames are made clumsy, rough (this happens quite often). In this case, it is better to disassemble the frames, especially since they are most often not glued, and the cavities should be pierced, cleaned with sandpaper. But for processing the quarters, into which, in fact, glasses are inserted, a zenzubel or a falzgebel may be required.
Nowadays, many craftsmen purchase electric planers - lightweight manual or stationary. Smart purchase, especially if you have a lot of joinery and carpentry work on your estate. However, hand tools are also useful.
The planing tool is sharpened from the blade to the back of the chamfer, which is applied with the entire surface during sharpening to avoid distortions. Tools should not be sharpened without water on a dry sharpener and on sharpeners with a high speed, as the thin blade will 'burn' and deteriorate.
The blade of the iron of the planer should protrude from the plane of the sole to the thickness of the removed chips. For metal planers, the knife is adjusted using a screw.